Navigation NAU 102 Lesson 25

Agenda
Tides ‡Importance ‡Definitions ‡Causes ‡Tidal Cycles ‡Reference Planes

Tides
Why do we care?
We don¶t want to: ‡Run aground. ‡Hit the bridge. ‡Snap the mooring lines.

Tide
The vertical rise and fall of the ocean level due to the gravitational and centrifugal forces between the earth and the moon (and the sun).

Definitions
High tide (or high water) ± highest water level reached in a rising tide Low tide (or low water) ± lowest water level reached in a falling tide Stand ± the brief period at high & low water when no change in water level can be detected. Range ± the difference in height between high tide and low tide.

Causes

Centrifugal Forces Gravitational Forces

Causes
Centrifugal Force A force that tends to impel a thing outward from the center of rotation.

Causes
Centrifugal Force The Earth/Moon system revolves around its center of mass, the barycenter.
Earth Moon

Barycenter

Causes
Centrifugal Force The Earth/Moon system revolves around its center of mass, the barycenter.
Earth Moon

Barycenter

Causes
Gravitational Force Gravity forces the water to flow towards the Moon.
Earth Moon

Causes
Gravitational Force Gravity forces the water to flow towards the Moon.
Earth Moon

Causes

Resultant Force
Earth Moon

Causes

Resultant Force
Earth Moon

Causes
If the Earth was a perfect sphere, completely covered with water: Two High Tides & Two Low Tides Every Lunar Day (24 hours 50 minutes)

Earth

Earth

Earth

Orbit of the moon
The moon¶s orbit is elliptical.
Its distance from Earth varies during the month. apogee
Earth

perigee

Tides are 15%-20% higher than average at perigee

Effect of the Sun

The Sun affects the tides as well.
Due to distance, it has only 46% of the Moon¶s effect.

Spring Tides
When the sun, Earth and moon are in line High tides are higher than normal. Low tides are lower than normal.

Neap Tides
When the sun, Earth and moon are 90° apart

High tides are lower than normal. Low tides are higher than normal.

Tides
Spring tides and neap tides each happen twice each month. Greatest range of tide occurs at perigean spring tides.

Local Tides
If the Earth was a perfect sphere And, it was covered by a uniform amount of water There would be 2 high tides and two low tides each day at every location. The tide range would be about 12 inches.

Local Tides
Because land shape and water depth varies from place to place, the tides vary with location. Local differences affect both the period of the tide and tide range. In coastal areas, the range of tide can be as much as 50 feet!

Local Tides Bay of Fundy Nova Scotia

Tidal Cycles
Semidiurnal Tide 2 high and 2 low waters each tidal day, with relatively small differences in the respective highs and lows. Tides on the Atlantic coast of the US.

Semidiurnal Tides

Tidal Cycles
Diurnal Tide A single high and single low water occur each tidal day. The northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico, in the Java Sea, the Gulf of Tonkin, and a few other places.

Diurnal Tides

Tidal Cycles
Mixed Tide 2 high and 2 low waters each day, with a large inequality in the high water heights, low water heights or both. Pacific coast of the US.

Mixed Tides

Reference Planes
How do we know how deep the water is? Look on the chart.
But, charted depth isn¶t necessarily the depth of the water at the moment. It is an average of the depths taken at specific times, depending on the Sounding Datum.

Reference Planes
Mean Sea Level (MSL) The average level of the ocean at a location. Data is collected over a 18.6 year period called the Nodal Period. Half the time the water is shallower than MSL. Half the time the water is deeper than MSL.

Dangerous!

Reference Planes
Mean low water (MLW) - the average of all low tides at a given place. Mean lower low water (MLLW) - the average lower low waters of each tidal day. (The sounding datum used for U.S. waters) Mean low water springs (MLWS) - the average level of the low waters at spring tides. (Used for some British charts)

Reference Planes
Mean High Water (MHW) - the average of all high tides at a given place. (The vertical datum used for U.S. waters) Mean higher high water (MHHW) - the average higher higher waters of each tidal day. Mean high water springs (MHWS) - the average level of the High waters at spring tides.

Tides

Introduction to Navigation

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