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Learning Objective

 To identify, describe, and give

examples of different sampling
Key Understanding
 Knowledge of the different sampling
procedures is crucial in identifying
appropriate sampling method for a chosen
research topic.
Key Question
 What are the different sampling

 In research, sampling is a word that refers to your

method or process of selecting respondents or people
to answer questions meant to yield data for a research
 The chosen ones constitute the sample through which
you will derive facts and evidence to support the claims
or conclusions propounded by your research problem.
 The bigger group from where you choose the sample is
called population, and sampling frame is the term used
to mean the list of the members of such population
from where you will get the sample. (Paris 2013)
Probability Sampling or
Unbiased Sampling
 Probability sampling involves all members listed
in the sampling frame representing a certain
population focused on by your study. An equal
chance of participation in the sampling or
selection process is given to every member listed
in the sampling frame.
 By means of this unbiased sampling, you are able
to obtain a sample that is capable of representing
the population under study or of showing strong
similarities in characteristics with the members of
the population.
Probability Sampling or
Unbiased Sampling
 A sampling error crops up if the selection does
not take place in the way it is planned. Such
sampling error is manifested by strong
dissimilarity between the sample and the ones
listed in the sampling frame.
 How numerous the sampling errors are depends
on the size of the sample. The smaller the
sample is, the bigger the number of sampling
errors. Thus, choose to have a bigger sample of
respondents to avoid sampling errors.
Probability Sampling or
Unbiased Sampling
 The right sample size also depends on whether or
not the group is heterogeneous or
homogeneous. The first group requires a bigger
size; the second, a smaller one.
 For a study in the field of social sciences requiring
an in-depth investigation of something such as one
involving the national government, the right sample
size ranges from 1,000 to 1,500 or up to 2,500.
 On the other hand, hundreds, not thousands, of
respondents suffice for a study about any local
government unit. (Suter 2012; Emmel 2013)
Types of Probability Sampling

1. Simple Random Sampling

 It is the best type of probability sampling

through which you can choose sample from a

 Using a pure-chance selection, you assure

every member the same opportunity to be in the
Types of Probability Sampling

1. Simple Random Sampling

 Here, the only basis of including or excluding a member
is by chance or opportunity, not by any occurrence
accounted for by cause-effect relationships.
 Simple random sampling happens through any of these
two methods: (Burns 2012)
a) Have a list of all members of the population; write
each name on a card, and choose cards through a
pure-chance selection.
b) Have a list of all members; give a number to member
and then use randomized or unordered numbers in
selecting names from the list.
Types of Probability Sampling
2. Systematic Sampling
 For this kind of probability sampling, chance and
system are the ones to determine who should
compose the sample.
 For instance, if you want to have a sample of 150,
you may select a set of numbers like 1 to 15, and
out of a list of 1,500 students, take every 15th
name on the list until you complete the total
number of respondents to constitute your sample.
Types of Probability Sampling
3. Stratified Sampling

 The group comprising the sample is chosen

in a way that such group is liable to
subdivision during the data analysis stage.
 A study needing group-by-group analysis finds
stratified sampling the right probability
sampling to use.
Types of Probability Sampling
4. Cluster Sampling
 This is a probability sampling that makes
you isolate a set of persons instead of
individual members to serve as sample
 For example, if you want to have a sample
of 120 out of 1,000 students, you can
randomly select three sections with 40
students each to constitute the sample.
Non-Probability Sampling
 Non-probability sampling disregards random
selection of subjects. The subjects are chosen
based on their availability or the purpose of
the study, and in some cases, on the sole
discretion of the researcher.
 This is not a scientific way of selecting
respondents. Neither does it offer a valid or an
objective way of detecting sampling errors.
(Edmond 2013)
Types of Non-Probability Sampling
1. Quota Sampling
 You resort to quota sampling when you think you
know the characteristics of the target population
very well.
 In this case, you tend to choose sample members
possessing or indicating the characteristics of the
target population.
 Using a quota or a specific set of persons whom
you believe to have the characteristics of the
target population involved in the study is your way
of showing that the sample you have chosen
closely represents the target population as
regards such characteristics.
Types of Non-Probability Sampling

2. Voluntary Sampling

 Since the subjects you expect to participate

in the sample selection are the ones
volunteering to constitute the sample, there
is no need for you to do any selection
process .
Types of Non-Probability Sampling

3. Purposive or Judgmental Sampling

 You choose people whom you are sure

could correspond to the objectives of your
study, like selecting those with rich
experience or interest in your study.
Types of Non-Probability Sampling

4. Availability Sampling
 The willingness of a person as your subject to
interact with you counts a lot in this non-
probability sampling method.
 If during the data-collection time, you
encounter people walking on a school
campus, along corridors, and along the park
or employees lining up at an office, and these
people show willingness to respond to your
questions, then you automatically consider
them as your respondents .
Types of Non-Probability Sampling
5. Snowball Sampling
 Similar to snow expanding widely or rolling rapidly,
this sampling method does not give a specific set of
samples. This is true for a study involving unspecified
group of people.
 Dealing with varied groups of people such as street
children, mendicants, drug dependents, call center
workers, informal settlers, street vendors, and the like
is possible in this kind of non-probability sampling.
 Free to obtain data from any group just like snow
freely expanding and accumulating at a certain place,
you tend to increase the number of people you want
to form the sample of your study. (Harding 2013)