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VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN

POLAND
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLAND

In Poland professional and vocational guidance is a responsibility of two


ministries:
Ministry of National Education and Sport is responsible for vocational
guidance and career planning of school students. The main institutions
maintained by this ministry providing services related to this are the
Psychological and Pedagogical Counselling Centres.
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLAND

Ministry of Economy, Labour and Social Policy is responsible for


professional and vocational guidance of adults and young people who are
unemployed or looking for job. The main institutions maintained by the
ministry and providing services related to this are 12 Centres for Vocational
Information existing at the Regional Labour Offices ; 52 Information and
Career Planning Centres also existing at RLO; as well as Units for
Information and Group Counselling existing at the District Labour Offices.
They all employ professional advisers.
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLAND

Consultancy related to career planning and vocational guidance is also


conducted by Voluntary Labour Corps (Ochotniczy Hufiec Pracy - OHP),
which have established Educational and Labour Centres whose personnel
includes vocational advisers. With regard to vocational training of young
people and preparing them to enter the labour market the importance of the
Voluntary Labour Corps will be growing.
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLAND

Organizational units of OHP will become specialized entities of the labour market for
that purpose. In order to fulfil this objective a network of Mobile Vocational
Information Centres for Youth will be established; their goal is to remove the barrier
related to the access to information and prevent social exclusion of young people
entering the labour market. The total number of 50 Mobile Vocational Information
Centres for Youth are to be established. Mobile Vocational Information Centres for
Youth will constitute the foundation for building nationwide information system, and
providing vocational guidance and labour agencies for young people, under the joint
name of Youth Career Centres.
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLAND

Relatively new structures which are being established by a growing number


of educational institutions are the School Career Centres, which are
designed to become school centres of educational and vocational
information. Ultimately they are designed to constitute a component of the
National System of Information and Educational and Vocational Guidance
and support the process of vocational counselling and career planning for
young people. The rationale for establishing such centres results from the
deep conviction that the process of an individual’s professional development
starts at a very young age. This is when we develop various qualities such
as approach to work, capabilities and skills; this is when the first decisions
related to education are taken.
PROFESSIONAL AND VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE SYSTEM IN POLAND

Therefore aiding the process of career planning and vocational guidance at


this early stage will allow for obtaining better results. It is absolutely justified
that career planning should start at the level of middle schools (gymnasium),
and it obviously should be present at the level of secondary education.
Institutions of higher education maintain Academic Career Offices. Their
services (career counselling, employment opportunities) are addressed at the
university students and graduates. The National Labour Office and the
Ministry of National Education and Sport have jointly established the National
Resource Centre for Vocational Guidance which cooperates with similar
Centres in the EU countries under Euroguidance network.
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE EDUCATION IN THE CURRICULUM

Vocational guidance education is part of the basic national curriculum as a cross-


cutting subject. Schools must integrate it into their detailed curricula in separate
subjects such as „citizenship education „ or „ social science”.

At ISCED level 2, the compulsory subject called civic education (3 teaching hours per
week in a period of 3 years) comprises elements of vocational guidance and consists
of three subjects: „family education”, „civic education” and „education for active
participation in the economic life of the country”.

Objectives are as follows:


the comprehensive development of students, aimed at preparing them for active
participation in the socioeconomic life of a country.
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE EDUCATION IN THE CURRICULUM

At ISCED level 3, introduction to entrepreneurship is the compulsory subject which is


most related to vocational guidance (2 teaching hours in a period of 3 years).

Its objectives:

• preparation for active participation in economic life;


• shaping of the attitude for reliable work and entrepreneurship;
• developing communicative skills and teamwork;
• developing skills for active job searching and the suitable choice of career;
• mechanisms of market economy;
• basic rules for running various businesses;
• the role of the state and its law in the market economy;
• European and world economies.
Traineeships within the framework of the curriculum

The legislation regulating the issue of practical vocational training is


the 1 July 2002 regulation by the Minister of National Education and Sport.

The regulation concerns practical vocational training in school workshops, school


laboratories, continuing education centers and practical training centers, with
employers and on individual farms; it applies to student of public upper secondary
schools offering vocational education as well as young workers/apprentices doing
traineeships as part of their job preparation course.

Traineeships are organized by the school.


Traineeships for apprentices are organized by their employers.
Practical vocational training

Practical vocational training has two forms: traineeships and practical training
classes.
Practical training classes are organized in order to teach the students and young
workers the vocational skills necessary to start work in a given profession. Practical
vocational training organized outside school is based on a contract signed by the
headmaster of the school and the institution providing the training, in groups or
individually.
Practical vocational training is delivered by teachers of practical vocational training. In
the case of training provided by an employer, it is delivered by employees with
teaching qualifications who are referred to as instructors of practical vocational
training.
Practical vocational training

Traineeships are organized for students to enable them to apply and further develop the acquired
skills and knowledge in real working conditions. Traineeships may be organized throughout the
whole school year and during summer holidays. The curriculum for each profession specifies the
range of skills and knowledge taught during traineeships. Students below the age of 16 have a
maximum of 6 hours of practical training per day, and students of 18 and over can have up to 8
hours of training a day.

Traineeships organized in firms or on farms have supervisors who are employers or nominated
employees of the firm or individual farmers. The supervisors of traineeships should have teaching
qualifications.
COOPERATION BETWEEN SCHOOLS, EMPLOYERS, PARENTS
AND OTHER STAKEHOLDERS

Contacts with the professional world


Seminars and workshops related to vocational guidance education
programmes are organized by schools in cooperation with the professional
world.
There is no national regulation concerning the issue. However, cooperation
is taking place on an individual institution, local business and community
basis. Many schools and businesses take part in the European educational
programmes such as Leonardo da Vinci or Comenius.
Guidance services at school

Since 2003, School Career Centres (Szkolne Ośrodki Kariery – SZOK) have been
created in schools at lower (gimnazjum) and upper secondary level. Currently, 361
centres are operational.
The educational counselors who work in them are responsible for the implementation
of a specific guidance system for each school. Their role is to provide pupils with
information on possible educational pathways, the local labour market, labour laws,
etc., and to help them acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to make their
future career choices. They offer counseling to pupils and parents, individually or in
groups.
Guidance services at school

The clients of SzOK are in majority pupils of the school, where the SzOK was
established, and pupils from other schools in the area (about 80%) as well as their
parents (over 10%). The next group of clients consist of teachers interested in
vocational guidance (about 3%) and unemployed youth aged up to 25 years of age
(1%). The rest 5% of clients are all people interested in contact with SzOK.
Guidance services at school

Classes in School Career Centress are implemented in various forms:


- activating group classes,
- lectures, questions and answers, brainstorming and other workshops,
- individual educational and vocational guidance,
- diagnose students' needs for information and assistance in career planning through interviews,
surveys and other methods,
- dissemination and discussion with the students the information gained in above way,
- watching films,
- access to Internet, borrowing books and publications of SZOK and use of other pedagogical
materials,
- publishing and editing newsletters or school additions,
- organizing trips to places connected with the world of education and work - secondary schools,
universities, offices and private companies to present various professions, trips to job fairs,
learning how to use office equipment.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Ministerstwo Pracy i Polityki Społecznej Departament Rynku Pracy www.mpips.gov.pl
2. Statystyki UE - http://europa.eu/documentation
3. Eurostat, „Profile krajów w zakresie ICT” - Statistics in Focus” oraz „Data in Focus”.
4. GUS- Główny Urząd Statystyczny- www.stat.gov.pl
5. Polskie Badania Internetu- www.pbi.org.pl
6. www.pracuj.pl
7. www.rynekpracy.pl
8. www.eurostudent.pl
9. www.wokolkariery.pl
BIBLIOGRAPHY

10. National Centre for Vocational Guidance Resources, (Narodowe Centrum Zasobów Poradnictwa
Zawodowego): www.psz.praca.gov.pl
11. Educational Assistance and Counselling Centre (Centrum Metodyczne Pomocy Psychologiczno-
Pedagogicznej): www.cmppp.edu.pl
12. http://bip.men.gov.pl/men_bip/akty_prawne/rozporzadzenie_090207.
13. http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet
14. http://edu.info.pl/file/4149
15. Country report (CEDEFOP) www.cedefop.europa.eu
BIBLIOGRAPHY

16. Guidance policies in the knowledge society. Trends, challenges and responses across Europe. A
Cedefop synthesis report. Ronald G. Sultana. Cedefop Panorama series; 85.
17. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2004.
18. ETV and Cedefop thematic analysis ‘Guidance and counselling for learning, career and
employment’
19. Eurybase; Eurydice.
Foundation for Educative and Social Initiatives
Development
Trzebownisko 731B
36-001 Trzebownisko
Email: biuro@fries.org.pl
www.fries.org.pl