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# LESSON 3.

## SHIFT REGISTERS AND COUNTERS

3.3.1 OBJECTIVES
3.3.2 LATCH AND CLOCK SIGNAL
3.3.3 FLIP FLOPS
3.3.4 SHIFT REGISTER
3.3.5 COUNTER

EUGELYN L. RUIZ
OBJECTIVES
• Provide an overview and technical
knowledge on how latch, clock signal, flip-
flops, shift registers and counters work.
• Discuss the primary application of these
digital circuits.
3.3.2 LATCH AND CLOCK
SIGNAL
A latch is an electronic logic circuit that has two inputs
and one output. One of the inputs is called
the SET input; the other is called the RESET input.

## A clock signal is a particular type of signal that

oscillates between a high and a low state and is used
like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits.
SR LATCH (ACTIVE HIGH)
SR LATCH (ACTIVE LOW)
3.3.3 FLIP FLOPS
Latches and flip-flops are the basic
elements for storing information. One latch or
flip-flop can store one bit of information. The
main difference between latches and flip-
flops is that for latches, their outputs are
constantly affected by their inputs as long as
the enable signal is asserted.
SR FLIP FLOP
An SR Flip Flop is an
arrangement of logic
gates that maintains a
stable output even after
the inputs are turned
off.
JK FLIP FLOP
JK flip flop is basically a gated
SR flip-flop with the addition of a
clock input circuitry that prevents
the illegal or invalid output
condition that can occur when both
inputs S and R are equal to logic
level “1”.
D FLIP FLOP
The D flip-flop tracks the input, making
transitions with match those of the
input D. The D stands for "data"; this flip-
flop stores the value that is on the data
line. It can be thought of as a basic
memory cell. A D flip-flop can be made
from a set/reset flip-flop by tying the set
to the reset through an inverter.
D FLIP FLOP
T FLIP FLOP
The T or "toggle" flip-flop changes its
output on each clock edge, giving an
output which is half the frequency of the
signal to the T input. It is useful for
constructing binary counters, frequency