Predetermined Time Systems

INSY 3021 Auburn University Spring 2007


Fredrick Taylor 

Time Study Motion Studies 

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth  

Predetermined Time Systems (PDTS) 

Combination of time and motion studies

Work can be described by these 17.  Effective/Productive: Reach, Move, Grasp, Release, Pre-Position, Use, Assemble & Disassemble.  Ineffective/Non-Productive: Search, Select, Position, Inspect, Plan, Unavoidable Delay, Avoidable Delay, Hold, Rest to overcome fatigue. 

To predict standard times for new or modified jobs  Used to improve method analysis  Can identify ergonomic risk factors and risk of repetitive strain indices (RSI) 


Sets of motion-time tables with rules and instructions Specialized training is essential to the practical application of these techniques Times are at 100% - which eliminates performance rating May be slight variability among different people using the same tool

Types of Systems 

Acceleration-deceleration Systems 

Different body motions move at different velocities 40% of total time is used during acceleration, 20% for constant velocity, and 40% for deceleration Not widely used today Very important in fields of Biomechanics and Kinematics Represents average motion difficulties for industrial operations Basic time values are used with a correction factor for difficult motions 

Average-motion Systems  

Additive Systems 

Methods-Time Measurement (MTM) 

A procedure that analyses manual operations or methods into basic motions needed to perform it, and assigns each a pre-determined time based on the motion and environmental conditions


Fundamental Motions 

Reach, turn, position, release, move, grasp, disengage 

Summarize all right-hand and left-hand motions  Determine time measurement unit (TMU)  Remove non-limiting motion values 

Time Measurement Units (TMU)
1 1 1 1 1 1 

TMU = 0.00001 hour TMU = 0.0006 min TMU = 0.036 sec hour = 100,000 TMU min = 1667 TMU sec = 27.8 TMU

Maynard Operation Sequence Technique (MOST)
Developed in 1980 by Zjell Zandin  Establishes standards at least 5 times faster than MTM-1, w/little if any sacrifice in accuracy  Concentrates on the movements of objects 

MOST Procedure
Watch job/task  Determine sequence(s) to use  Determine index values  Add index values to determine TMU  Multiply TMU by 10  Convert TMU to seconds, minutes, hours 

Concept of MOST 

Definition of work Work is the displacement of a mass or object Work = Force X Distance

f = 10 lbs. d = 4 in.

f = 10 lbs. d = 0 in.

Concept of MOST
In Work, an object is moved GET and PUT
For example, you can lift a box and place it down three feet away.  Basic body motions used to perform work occur in repeating patterns or sequences.  This is the foundation of BasicMOST and the sequence models that make up MOST. 

Concept of MOST
MOST Analysis Method Description Sequence Model Phases Parameters (A, B, G«) Index Values (1, 3, 6«)

Concept of MOST
Method Description  Documents the action performed
Clear, concise and easily understood  Comprised of recommended words  


Grasp marker located three steps away on the floor and put in holder.

Sequence Models  

Sequence models represent the sequence of events that occurs when an object is moved or a tool is used. Predefined sequence models represent different types of activities. Three sequence models can be used to analyze all types of manual work:  General Move (moved freely through space)  Controlled Move (movement restricted; attached or in contact)  Tool Use (using common hand tools)


Sequence models are structured into phases used to describe the action performed. Each of the predefined sequence models has a different set of phases. From Method Description Example: 

Grasp marker located three steps away on the floor and put in holder.


How did I GET the marker?

How did I PUT the marker?


Index Values

A 6 B 6 G1 Get 

A 6B 0 P 1 Put

A0 Return 

Each parameter is assigned an index value based on the motion needed to perform the activity. Index values are then used to generate the total time required to perform a task.

How is Work Measurement Done?
Method Description from video: 

Grasp heavy box located within reach, walk eight steps, position on pallet and return to initial location.

A 1 B 0 G3 Get

A 10 0 B P Put


A 10 Return

300 TMU x .036 sec/TMU = 10.8 seconds

How is Work Measurement Done?
Top Row

TMU 300

A 1 B 0 G3 Get

A 10 0 B P Put


A 10 Return A 10 Return A 10 Return

Middle Row

A 1 B 0 G3 Get A 1 B 0 G3 Get

A 10 0 B P Put A 10 6 B P Put



Bottom Row


Sources of error & variance 

Hard to classify some motions Difference in opinion between team members Variation in distance measurements Repeatability and variation of worker Very time-consuming to break up job Repetitive to enter in data May not match actual times

Pro¶s & Con¶s
Advantages:  Efficiently estimates the time to perform a task  Accurate results  Methods are easily understood  Sequence models result in minimal paperwork  Encourages method development and continuous improvement Disadvantages:  Requires exact job description and layout  Chance of omitting elements when estimating new jobs  Not always applicable to non-repetitive operations

Basic Sequence Models 

General Move 

The spatial movement of an object freely through the air The movement of an object when it either remains in contact with a surface or remains attached to another object during movement 

Controlled Move  

Tool Use

Basic Sequence Models
Activity General Move Sequence Model ABG ABP A Parameter A ± action distance B ± body motion G ± gain control P ± placement M ± move controlled X ± process time I ± alignment F/L ± fasten/loosen C ± cut S ± surface treat M ± measure R ± record T ± think

Controlled Move Tool Use



General Move 


Action Distance (A) ± horizontal distance Body Motion (B) ± vertical distance Gain Control (G) Placement (P) 


ABG | ABP | A Get | Put | Return Assign an index value based on complexity Accounts for 50-60% of most industrial work

General Move


When determining the normal time that it takes to obtain an object, Action Distance is accounted for in the calculation


As you can see, Body Movement is taken into account for the calculation

Controlled Move 


Action Distance (A) ± horizontal distance Body Motion (B) ± vertical distance Gain Control (G) Move Controlled (M) Process Time (X) ± machine time Alignment (I) 

ABG | MXI | A Get | Move or Actuate | Return

Tool Use 


Fasten (F) Loosen (L) Cut (C) Surface Treat (S) Measure (M) Record (R) Think (T) 

ABG | ABP | * | ABP | A Get | Put | Tool Action | Put | Return


Example: Get a handful of washers and put them onto 3 bolts located 5 inches apart. 

A1 B0 G3 (A1 B0 P1) A0 (3) = 100 TMU 

Example: A worker slides a ruler within reach and pushes it 6 inches (15 cm) to measure two points that are 8 inches apart. 

A1 B0 G1 M1 X0 I6 A0 = 90 TMU 

Example: Grasp wrench and fasten bolt with 3 wrist strokes and aside. 

A1 B0 G1 A1 B0 P3 F10 A1 B0 P1 A0 = 180 TMU

Other MOST Systems
MiniMOST  MaxiMOST  AdminMOST 

MOST® Work Measurement Systems: Third Edition, Revised and Expanded, Kjell B. Zandin

Special Issues 

Work Factors For instance, allows the incorporation of stairs & gates into PDTS models.

Questions & Comments

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