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as an
Literature, Its Concept
 Literature – is derived from the Latin
word, “Litterae”, meaning letters.
- refers to French phrase, “belles-
lettres”, meaning beautiful writing.

 Literature refers to any written or spoken

language which possesses aesthetic
Why We Read and Study Literature
 Reading literature makes us well-informed
about various areas of knowledge that
have accumulated through the years.
 Reading is a worthwhile form of
 Reading good pieces of literature provides
a source of inspiration.
 Reading is a form of therapy.
Functions and Values of Literature
 Reading literary works of art like stories,
novels and plays help us forget temporarily
our worries and problems.
 Literature is a good source of information
on value formation and it teaches desirable
moral values that can improve our lives.
 Short stories teach us values of love,
dedication, self-sacrifice and social
1. Francisco Arcellana
 The Mats – a story that portrays a father’s
love and concern for his wife and children
by showering them with letters full of
concern and bringing home from his
faraway place of work surprise gifts like
beautifully embroidered mats with each
name of the family member woven in
National Artist in

Francisco “Franz” Arcellana

2. Bienvenido Santos
 Childhood in Bulacan – a story of a poor
family that survives the hardships and
struggles for existence; a story which
portrays that success can be achieved
amidst all difficulties through dedication,
cooperation, unity, diligence, perseverance,
love and concern for one another.
Bienvenido Santos
3. Kerima Polotan-Tuvera
 A House Full of Daughters – a true-to-life
story of a working mother’s sacrifices,
joys and heartaches in raising seven
disciplined and loving daughters, who are
equal in many ways and friends in all by
borrowing each other’s hairpins, dipping
their powder puffs into the same powder
box and in gay confusion, fight daily over
the bathroom.
Kerima Polotan-Tuvera
4. Erlinda Villamor
 Legend of the Sunset – a story that depicts
the value of a mother’s endearing love
and concern for her son against his
enemies. Even after death, she continued
to appear in her grave in different colors
called rainbow to show her love.
5. I.V. Mallari
 The Strangers – depicts the value of loving
one’s enemies. It is a story of a family who
moved to a new town and their son
David was disliked by his classmates.
Despite their evil attitude and intentions
against him, David saved a classmate from
Functions and Values of Literature

Short stories can also teach the values of

spirituality and the universal truth that a
man can be saved through his unwavering
faith and trust in the Supreme Being.
e.g. Arcadio Arzaga’s The Night of the
 Novels like Jose Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere and
El Filibusterismo depict the values of
courage, chivalry, love of country and love
of fellowmen.
Functions and Values of Literature

 In reading epics, our appreciation is

aroused for the courageous and heroic
deeds of man.
1. Antonio F.Villanueva
 The Life of Lam-ang – an Ilocano epic
whose origins dated from the pre-Spanish
period. It is a tale of a man with a
supernatural strength and character who
fought and won battles against giants and
enemies that killed his father. As a reward
of his fearlessness and bravery, he won a
beautiful, talented and wealthy wife.
 Bantugan – a Muslim epic which tells of a
god-like hero, who possessed physical
prowess, beauty and intelligence. It
portrays vividly the heroic exploits of
Prince Bantugan, his amorous adventures,
his wise teachings, the vinta made as a
flying war-vehicle, and his death in the
arms of Princess Datumbang.
 Ibalon – an ancient Bicol epic, tells the
story of three Bicol heroes: Baltog,
Handiong, and Bantog. It describes the
horrible monsters these heroes slew after
terrific battles.
Functions and Values of Literature

 Reading biographies of great and successful

men and women can also influence our
values like those of Jose Rizal, Dr. Carlos P.
Romulo, Dr. Jose Garcia Villa, and many
1. Jose Rizal
 A hero of many talents.
 The fearless genius of the Malay race and
the greatest of the Filipino heroes.
 Died valiantly at Bagumbayan (now
Luneta) on December 30, 1896.
Jose P. Rizal
2. Carlos P. Romulo
 A man of enormous and lasting
contributions to humanity as a statesman,
journalist, lecturer, soldier, thinker,
educator and famed world leader.
 He exemplifies that “a rolling stone can
gather all the moss” and that “excellence
is the fruit of intelligence”.
Carlos P. Romulo
3. Dr. Jose Garcia Villa
 A man who succeeded in his endeavors,
making his mistakes and failures as
challenges and as a springboard to greater
Jose Garcia Villa
4. Franz Arcellana
 A man whose stories have touched the
lives of those who came to know the
stories he has written.
 To him, reading became not only a hobby,
but also an outlet, which helped him
overcome his sorrows.
Francisco “Franz” Arcellana
5. Fernando Amorsolo
 His life is spent in making beautiful art
works like portraits, landscapes, and
historical panoramas upon which he
found honor and fame.
 His life teaches us to hitch our wagon to
reachable stars and with strong
determination, pursue and reach it.
Fernando Amorsolo
6.Vicente Manansala
 His life depicts a man of humble beginnings as
bootblack, a newsboy, a caddy, and a
distributor of programs in movie houses who
became the Philippine National Artist in Visual
Arts in 1982.
 He loves to paint insects.
 As a visual artist, he says that “what produces
the work actually is what takes place inside
 He exemplifies the truth of “ correct practice
makes perfect.”
Vicente Manansala
7. Gerardo de Leon
 A man with great talent in sketching in his
childhood and who later became a
professional actor, scriptwriter, movie
director, and a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.).
 His life is a proof that parents serve as
role models.
Gerardo de Leon
8. Lucrecia R. Kasilag
 A Philippine Artist in Music in 1989 who
was a recipient of several awards for her
leadership and outstanding contributions
to music and art.
 She was a dedicated and committed to
enrich our Philippine Cultural Heritage
through music and dance.
Lucrecia R. Kasilag
9. Leonardo V. Locsin
 His life impresses us of his architectural
accomplishments, one of which was
designing the Cultural Center of the
Functions and Values of Literature

 Essays are also good sources of desirable

values and increase our knowledge and
insights into the personality and values of
the writer, as well as his style whether
humorous, nostalgic, whimsical, witty or
1. Carlos P. Romulo
 I am a Filipino – is an essay that depicts
the writer’s love of country and intense
pride to live in a beautiful country with its
scenic beauty as well as its rich and
abundant resources like the Philippines.
2. Jose Rizal
 Hymn to Labor – is an essay which
portrays the laborer as a hero because of
his noble task of producing and feeding
the people of the country. The values of
joy, dignity and contentment that reign in
honest labor and economic sufficiency are
portrayed in this essay.
3. Leopoldo Y. Yabes
 And End to Hatred – is an essay that
recognizes the significant role of
education as a source of enlightenment
and as effective instrument in the solution
of the country’s problems which can put
an end to hatred. It informs us that
adequate and proper education would
make the world a better place to live in
where more love, tolerance and
understanding among men.
4. Benjamin Panlilio
 The Untainted Land – is an essay that
depicts the peace, serenity and freshness
of life in the countryside. It also reflects
the author’s desire to be a farmer so that
he can help produce food to feed the
5. Jovita Salonga
 The Education Man – is an essay that unravels
the personality, personal experiences, and
values of the writer. We learn from this essay
that an educated man is one who lives a
good life – a meaningful and abundant life;
one who respects the inherent worth and
dignity of every human being as a creature of
God; one who has a healthy sense of values,
broad outlook and compassion, to mention a
6. Ishmael V. Mallari
 Are Labels Enough? – is an essay that tells
us that college degree and diploma are
not sufficient proofs that a college
graduate is “an educated man.”
The life of a man who has
not acquired the right and
adequate education is
“likened to a ship without a
rudder, without an anchor
driven by winds of chance
and circumstances.”

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