# BEE1133 : Circuit Analysis I

Chapter 3: Method of Analysis (dc)

Method of Analysis : Syllabus
3.1 Nodal analysis 3.2 Application of Cramer¶s rule 3.3 Nodal analysis with voltage sources: supernode 3.4 Mesh analysis 3.5 Mesh analysis with current sources: supermesh 3.6 Nodal versus mesh analysis

Nodal Analysis
 Without voltage source  With voltage sources

Nodal Analysis:Lesson Outcomes
 Understand the concept of nodal voltage  Analyze dc circuit using nodal analysis  Apply Cramer rule to solve simultaneous equations  Understand the concept of supernode

 In the first section.Nodal Analysis  Nodal analysis applies KCL to find unknown voltages value.  To analyze a circuit using nodal analysis. . node voltages are used as a circuit variables instead of element voltages to reduce number of equations. circuits with no voltage sources are considered.

Choose a reference node. Assign node voltages to the other nodes. Apply KCL to each node other than the reference node. 2. 4. .Nodal Analysis : Steps Steps to determine node voltages: 1. 3. Solve the resulting system of linear equations. express currents in terms of node voltages.

b 5A 1.Nodal Analysis w/o voltage source Example Find the voltages at a and b for the circuit below a 2. 4. 4A .

V1 2.Nodal Analysis w/o voltage source Step 1 : Choose a reference node. V0 Reference node . V2 1. Step 2 : Assign node voltages to the other nodes. 4.

i2 4. 5A i2 2. 4A V0 V2 i4 i5 i2 = i4 + i5 (apply KCL) V1 V2 V2 V0 ! 4 2 4 .Nodal Analysis w/o voltage source Step 3 : Apply KCL to each node other than the reference node (in term of node voltage). At node a : i1 = i2 + i3 (apply KCL) V1 V2 V1 V0 5!  2 1 At node b : (in term of node voltage) V1 i1 i3 1.

0 0 V1 V2 V1 V0  .Nodal Analysis w/o voltage source Step 4 : Solve the resulting system of linear equations. (1) 5! 2 1 V1 V2 V1 5!  2 1 10!V1 V2  2V1 V1 V2 V2 V0 !  4. (2) 2 4 V1 V2 V2 ! 4 2 4 2(V1 V2 ) !V2 16 10! 3V1 V2 3V1 V2 !10 2V1 3V2 !16 .

(2) from (1) and solving for V1 & V2 9V1  2V1 ! 3016!14 2V1 3V2 !16 11 V1 ! 2V 3V2 !16 4 @V2 ! 4V .Nodal Analysis w/o voltage source  The above equations can be solved by using 2 methods: i) Simultaneous equations / elimination technique ii) Cramer s rule  For elimination technique: 3V1 V2 !10 (x3) 9V1 3V2 ! 30 (1) 2V1 3V2 !16 (2) (1) (2) By subtracting eq.

we need to put the equations in matrix form as below: «3 1»«V1 » «10» ¬2 3¼¬V ¼ ! ¬16¼ ­ ½­ 2 ½ ­ ½  Determinant of the matrix is: (! 3 1 2 3 ! (3v3)  (1v2) ! 7 3 10  Solve for V1 and V2 10 1 (1 16 3 3016 V1 ! ! ! !? ( ( 7 ( 2 2 16 48  20 V2 ! ! ! !? 12 ( ( 7 .Application of Cramer·s rule  To use Cramer s rule.

3-4)  Consider the circuit below.Nodal Analysis w/o voltage source Exercise 1 (prob 4. + VR1 _ + VR2 5 mA _ 3 mA R1 R2 13 . 500 . Find the value of R1 and R2 if the voltages across those resistors are vR1 = 1 V and vR2 = 2 V .

Find the voltage value at each non-reference node. Ans: V1 = ? V2 = ? V3 = ? 14 V1 .V3 = 21.Nodal Analysis w/o voltage source Exercise 2 (prob 4.3-5)  Consider the circuit below. v2 250 . 500 . v1 125 .7 mV . v3 1 mA 500 . 250 .

 The rest of the non-reference nodes are treated like previous steps for nodal analysis.Nodal Analysis with voltage source  There are 2 possibilities of a circuit with voltage source: i) A voltage source between reference node and a non-reference node ii) A voltage source between two non-reference nodes (these two nodes form a supernode)  For the case in (i). we simply set the voltage at the nonreference node equal to the voltage source value. .

90 V 45 V . + _ 3. find vo for the circuit below 8. + _ 6.Nodal Analysis with voltage source Example (case i) Using nodal analysis. 10 .

Step 2 : Assign node voltages to the other nodes. V2 + _ 3.Nodal Analysis with voltage source Step 1 : Choose a reference node. 10 . 90 V V0 45 V + _ . 6. V1 8.

i2 i3 V2 10 . At node V1 : i1 + i2 = i3 (apply KCL) V3 V1 V2 V1 V1 V0  ! 3 18 6 At node V2 and V3 : V2 = 90 V V3 = 45 V (in term of node voltage) 8 . + _ 90 V V1 i1 3. V0 45 V + _ . V3 6.Nodal Analysis with voltage source Step 3 : Apply KCL to each node other than the reference node (in term of node voltage).

V3 V1 V2 V1 V1 V0  ! 3 18 6 45V1 90V1 V1  0  ! 3 18 6 6v(45V1) 90V1 ! 3V1 270  6V1  90  V1 ! 3V1 10V1 ! 360 0 V1 ! 36V .Nodal Analysis with voltage source Step 4 : Solve the resulting system of linear equations.

73 .27 20 V2 = 42. 1.14)  Using nodal analysis. 5A V2 2. 20 V _ + _ + _ 40 V Ans: V1 = 27. + V1 4.Nodal Analysis with voltage source Exercise 3 (prob 3. V1 8. find v1 and v2 for the circuit below.

4.V3 = 3.Nodal Analysis with voltage source Exercise 4 (prob 4. Ans: V1 = ? V2 = 12. find voltage value at each non-reference node for the circuit below. V3 12 V + _ 3.33 . V2 2. 1A V1 2.0 V3 = ? 21 V1 .4-8)  Using nodal analysis.

 Below are the properties of supernode: i) voltage source inside supernode provides constraint equation to solve for node voltages ii) Supernode has no voltage of its own iii)Supernode requires the application of both KCL & KVL.Nodal Analysis with voltage source  A supernode is formed by enclosing: i) A voltage source connected between 2 nonreference nodes ii) and any elements connected in parallel with it. .

Vo _ 5 mA . find vo for the circuit below + _ 8V + 500 . 3 mA 500 .Nodal Analysis with voltage source Example (case ii) Using nodal analysis.

Nodal Analysis w/o voltage source Step 1 : Choose a reference node. 3 mA V0 Reference node 500 . Vo _ 5 mA . Step 2 : Assign node voltages to the other nodes. V1 V2 + _ 8V + 500 .

. 500 . At supernode : i1 + i2 = i3 + i4 (apply KCL) 3 mA + 5 mA ! V1 V0  V2 V0 (in term of node voltage) 500 500 V1 i3 i1 + _ 8V V2 i2 i4 5 mA Apply KVL at supernode : V1 = V2 + 8 (apply KVL) 3 mA 500 .Nodal Analysis w/o voltage source Step 3 : Apply KCL to each node other than the reference node (in term of node voltage).

0 0 8 mA ! V1 V0 V2 V0  500 500 V1 !V2 8 V1 V2 ! 8 «(2) V1 V2 ! 4 «(1) Solve above equations by using elimination technique: (1) ± (2) : V1 V2  (V1 V2 ) ! 4 8 V2 ! 2 !V0 V1 ! 6 .Nodal Analysis w/o voltage source Step 4 : Solve the resulting system of linear equations.

4A Ans: V1 = -10.Nodal Analysis with voltage source Exercise 5 (exp 8.22)  Using nodal analysis. V1 + _ V2 12 V 6A 2 . find voltage value at V1 and V2 for the circuit below.67 27 V2 = -1.33 . 4. 10 .

4-4)  Using nodal analysis. V3 12 V 500 . find voltage value at each non-reference node for the circuit below. Ans: V1 = ? V2 = 12. V2 250 .0 V3 = 4.Nodal Analysis with voltage source Exercise 6 (prob 4.028 . + _ 8V V1 125 . + _ 500 .

Mesh Analysis  Without current source  With current sources .

Mesh Analysis:Lesson Outcomes  Understand the concept of mesh current  Analyze dc circuit using mesh analysis  Understand the concept of supermesh  Evaluate the better method between nodal and mesh analysis for a particular circuit problem .

.  A mesh is loop that does not contain any other loop within it.  Using mesh currents instead of element currents as circuit variables is easier because it reduces the number equations to be solved simultaneously.Mesh Analysis  Mesh analysis applies KVL to find unknown currents value.

Identify mesh (loops). Mesh Analysis : Steps Steps to determine mesh currents: 1. Assign a current to each mesh. Identify mesh (loops).Steps of Mesh Analysis 1. 3. Apply KVL around each loop to get an equation in terms of the loop currents. Assign a current to each mesh. Solve the resulting system of linear equations. 4. Solve the resulting system of linear equations. 2. 3. Apply KVL around each loop to get an equation in terms of the loop currents. 4. 2. .

find the branch currents i1. . + _ 12 V 5. i2 i3 10 . i2 and i3 using mesh analysis i1 15 .Mesh Analysis w/o current source Example For the circuit below.

15 . Mesh 2 + _ Mesh 1 . Step 2 : Assign a current to each mesh. Ia 12 V Ib 5.Mesh Analysis w/o current source Step 1 : Identify mesh (loops). 10 .

Ib) = 0 20Ia . Ib .5Ib = 12 15 . For mesh 2: VR10 + VR5 = 0 10Ib + 5(Ib .Ia) = 0 -5Ia + 15Ib = 0 + _ 12 V Ia 5.Mesh Analysis w/o current source Step 3 : Apply KVL around each loop to get an equation in terms of the loop currents. 10 . For mesh 1: -Vs + VR15 + VR5 = 0 -12 + 15Ia + 5(Ia .

(2) Ib = (5 x 0.Mesh Analysis w/o current source Step 4 : Solve the resulting system of linear equations.5Ib = 12 (x3) 60 Ia .65)/15 = 0.(2) from (1) and solving for Ia & Ib 60 Ia .22 A .15 Ib = 36 «(1) -5 Ia + 15 Ib = 0 «(2) By adding eq.  The above equations can be solved by using 2 methods: i) Simultaneous equations / elimination technique ii) Cramer¶s rule  For elimination technique: 20Ia .5 Ia = 36 Ia = 36/55 = 0.65 A From eq.

65A I b ! Ia ! ! ! ! ! 0.Application of Cramer·s rule  To use Cramer s rule. we need to put the equations in matrix form as below: «20 5»«Ia » «12» ¬5 15¼¬I ¼ ! ¬ 0 ¼ ­ ½­ b ½ ­ ½  Determinant of the matrix is: (! 20 5 5 15 ! (20v15)  (5v5) ! 275  Solve for Ia and Ib 12 5 20 12 (a 0 15 180 ( b  5 0 0  60 ! ! 0.22 A 37 275 ( ( ( ( 275 .

Mesh Analysis w/o current source Exercise 7 (exa 8. Ans: IR10 = 1. 2. IR10 8.18)  Find the current through the 10 . 10 . + _ 15 V 3. 5. resistor of the circuit below by using mesh analysis.22 A 38 .

8V _ + Ans: IR2 = 1 A 39 4. _ + 28 V 2. 6. IR2 for the circuit shown below.Mesh Analysis w/o current source Exercise 8 (exer 4. I .6-1)  Use mesh analysis to determine the current. 12 .

Identify mesh (loops). . Assign a current to each mesh. 4.Mesh Analysis with current source  There are 2 possibilities of a circuit with current source: i) A current source exist only in one mesh ii) A current source exist between two meshes. 2. 1. Apply KVL around each loop to get an equation in terms of the loop currents. 3. (these requires a supermesh analysis) Steps of Mesh Analysis  For the case in (i). Solve the resulting system of linear equations.

resistor. V0. 41 .Mesh Analysis with current source Exercise 2 (prob 2.35)  Given voltage supply VS = 50 V. resistor. V1 and 5 . calculate the voltages across 70 .

Conclusion .

The End .

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