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THE PRINCIPLES OF WRAPPING & TAPING
Wrapping and taping are tools utilized by any individual dealing with athletic injuries. There are a variety of uses for both wrapping and taping including prevention, support and protection of injuries. Taping and wrapping are used for strains, sprains, contusions as well as a variety of other injuries and conditions.
PRINCIPLES OF WRAPPING - Protection from a Painful Range of Motion. - Support for a Mild to Moderate injury so the athlete can return to play. - If athlete is unable to play ± Part of the I.C.E.R. Principle (Compression and slight support).
MATERIALS USED Which materials are used depends on whether the condition is Muscular (contractile) or Inert (ligament). Musculotendinous injuries require tensors (2´, 4´, or 6´) for support. Tensors can be used for a variety of injuries including Quadriceps and Hamstring Strains as well as ³Groin´ Injuries. Cloth Wraps are used for wrist and ankle injuries.
(APPLICATION) The following steps should always be used when applying a support technique using a tensor. 1. Assess the injury
± Type of Injury (Contractile? Inert? Contusion?) ± Assess as any Muscle/Tendon Injury ± Degree of Injury ± If mild ± Consider Wrap & Return to play ± If Moderate/Severe ± Wrap as part of ICER
taping has been a skill of the Athletic Therapist/Athletic Trainer but is effectively used by anyone who deals with athletes. The primary uses for athletic taping and wrapping are diverse . Historically.TAPING PRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION Taping is a skill which requires a great deal of practice and experience.
TAPING PRINCIPLES THE THREE MAIN GOALS OF ATHLETIC TAPING INCLUDE. .Protection (Rehabilitative) .Support (Functional) Taping or bracing should never replace the proper rehabilitation of an injured joint or muscle.Prevention (Prophylactic) . .
. Taping over lacerations. blisters or abrasions. Allergic reaction to tape or adherent.TAPING PRINCIPLES Contraindications/Precautions to Taping Injuries requiring support more aggressive than taping. When taping excessively restricts range of motion of a joint and thereby predisposes the athlete to further injury.
TAPING PRINCIPLES ALLERGIC REACTION TO TAPE AND ADHERENT .
POST TAPING CHECK FOR WRINKLES. . WINDOWS CHECK FOR PERIPHERAL CIRCULATION TEST FOR FUNCTION X 2.TAPING PRINCIPLES PRE TAPING PAST HISTORY OF TAPING (EFFECTIVENESS?) ALLERGIES ± TAPE? SPRAY? BANDAIDS? QUICK STRUCTURAL TESTING AND ESTABLISH ANATOMICAL BOUNDARIES.
³ IS TAPING PRACTICAL FOR THIS INJURY AND SITUATION. OR AM I SETTING THEM UP FOR FURTHER INJURY OR REINJURY?´ .
There are many different elastic tapes on the market which can be used for musculotendonous injuries. Tape comes in a assortment of types and sizes. . as well as zinc oxide tape which can be used for joint injuries due to its non yielding properties.TAPING PRINCIPLES TAPE SELECTION Choosing the right tape depends on the type of injury as well as the size of the area being taped.
TAPING PRINCIPLES TAPE SELECTION .
.TAPING PRINCIPLES ELASTIC TAPES (Elastoplast) are used to encircle muscle bulk and act as an anchor. You should always make the necessary allowances for contraction and expansion prior to using this tape.
.TAPING PRINCIPLES TAPE SELECTION Zinc oxide tape should be used for ligamentous (inert) types of injuries which do not require µgive.¶ Tearing the tape requires a surprisingly small amount of force. Simply tear the tape with your fingers by pinching the edge and ripping.
Check for cuts. . blisters or skin irritations and protect these areas prior to taping. PROTECT FRICTION AREAS WITH LUBRICANT AND GAUZE. shave and dry the area to be taped . the following steps should be followed. SKIN PREPARATION .TAPING PRINCIPLES STEPS IN TAPING Once the pre-evaluation has been completed and the tape has been selected.Wash.
underwrap or Jwrap (if not shaved) to protect the skin. Be careful as some commercial preparations can cause skin irritation. especially if the athlete is being taped for a prolonged period of time. UNDERWRAP ± Apply Pro-wrap.TAPING PRINCIPLES SPRAY ± Use µSkin Prep¶ or µSkin Toughener¶ to help adhere the tape and protect the skin. . Non-allergic options are available.
TAPING PRINCIPLES TAPE REMOVAL ±¶SHARKS¶ OR SCISSORS .
Keep the tape roll in hand whenever possible. exposing the underlying skin.TAPING PRINCIPLES RULES FOR TAPE APPLICATION If the part to be taped is a joint. Avoid continuous taping (with a few exceptions ± ie. place it in the position in which it is to be stabilized. The heel lock and figure eight pattern with ankle taping). . This will ensure taping speed and accuracy. Continuous taping will cause constriction. make the necessary allowances for contraction and expansion (Warm up). Overlap the tape at least half the width of the tape below or it will separate. If the part is muscle or tendon.
tape directly over the skin surface. Where maximum support is desired. The athlete should not move during taping as this will loosen the tape. This is done by stroking the tape with the fingers. other mediums may be used (pre wrap) as tape bases.TAPING PRINCIPLES RULES FOR TAPE APPLICATION Smooth and mould the tape to the body part as it is laid on the skin. Shaving is required for this task to be accomplished successfully. . In the case of sensitive skin. palms or heels of the hand. Fresh tape needs time to adhere.
.TAPING TECHNIQUES Turf Toe ± Turf toe is an injury involving a number of structures (ligament. Turf toe may be a hyper extension or hyper flexion injury. tendon) at the metatarsal phallangeal joint MTP of the hallux (big toe).
Brace . Tape Used: Full strips and one quarter strips.TAPING TECHNIQUES Taping Rationale: The most common mechanism of injury is hyper-extension. hence the taping rationale is to limit the painful range of motion.
locked proximally. then followed by a ribbon strip which is then locked at the distal end. three strips are placed close together.TAPING TECHNIQUES TURF TOE Taping Points ± Following the placement of the anchors. .
TAPING TECHNIQUES PLANTAR FASCIITIS . .Plantar fasciitis is a term commonly used to describe pain at the proximal end of the heel.
.TAPING TECHNIQUES Taping Rationale: To support the plantar fascia and the medial longtitudinal arch and to accentuate the fat pad.
.TAPING TECHNIQUES Tape Used: Full strips and one quarter strips. The final strips are full strips from the lateral anchor to the medial anchor. Taping Points: All the strips in this tape job proceed from lateral to medial in order to support the Medial Longtitudinal arch.
This technique can be used for both inversion and eversion sprains and is composed of two parts.Basketweave Part 2 .TAPING TECHNIQUES CLOSED GIBNEY TECHNIQUE RATIONALE: The Closed Gibney tape job is used primarily for three reasons.Heel Locks and Figure Eights . Part 1 . PROPHYLACTIC REHABILITATIVE SUPPORTIVE (FUNCTIONAL) It is primarily Supportive rather than Compressive.
TAPING TECHNIQUES EXAMPLES OF ANKLE BRACES .
TAPING TECHNIQUES TAPE USED: Full Strips PART 1: The basket weave is formed by alternating horseshoes and stirrups closing the ankle in preparation for the second and most important part of the technique. .
It is said that 80% of the effectiveness of ankle taping is from this part of the technique because it locks the subtalar joint (between the talus and the calcaneus). .TAPING TECHNIQUES PART 2: The Heel Locks & Figure Eights RATIONALE: This is the most important part of any ankle tape job. The most common mechanism of ankle sprains is the INVERSION SPRAIN. It is at this joint where inversion and eversion take place.
TAPING TECHNIQUES LATERAL ANKLE LIGAMENTS .
TAPING TECHNIQUES MEDIAL ANKLE LIGAMENT .
All essentially do the same thing which is to lock the subtalar joint.TAPING TECHNIQUES HEEL LOCK & FIGURE EIGHTS There are many different variations. LOUISIANNA ILLINOIS .
TAPING TECHNIQUES OTHER USES FOR ANKLE TAPING ± Spats ± Holding on Pads. dressings ± Covering exposed metal (Braces) .
periostitis. stress fracture of the tibia (or fibula). Shin splints involves pain in the Anterior-Lateral part of the leg or the Posterior-Medial part of the lower leg. POSTERIOR MEDIAL ANTERIOR LATERAL .TAPING TECHNIQUES ³SHIN SPLINTS´ . The condition known as shin splints may include a variety of conditions including. tendonitis. or compartment syndrome.Shin splints are a ³Wastebasket´ term denoting pain in the lower third of the leg.
TAPING TECHNIQUES POSTERIOR-MEDIAL Shin splints usually involves the TIBIALIS POSTERIOR MUCLE which is found in the deep posterior compartment. This type of Shin splint is usually associated with a Pronated foot .
.TAPING TECHNIQUES ANTERIOR-LATERAL Shin splints usually involves the TIBIALIS ANTERIOR MUSCLE which is found in the anterior compartment. This type of Shin splint is usually associated with a high arched or Supinated foot.
The direct component is for compression and to approximate the tendon back onto the bone. . & one quarter strips. The second part of the tape job is the same arch support technique as plantar fasciitis. Back toward the midline of the leg. The indirect component is to give arch support to the pronated/arch foot and indirectly take the stress off of the affected tendon. TAPE USED: Full strips of tape (Part 1).TAPING TECHNIQUES RATIONALE: TIBIALIS POSTERIOR ± The rationale for this taping technique involves both a direct and an indirect component. TAPING POINTS: The strips around the lower part of the leg go from the lateral to the medial aspect of the leg (ie.
TAPING TECHNIQUES TIBIALIS POSTERIOR TENDINITIS (Direct) Indirect .
and the second strip(s) are placed around the retinaculum (tear drop design). TAPE USED: Full strips TAPING POINTS: The strips around the lower leg go in the opposite direction of the tibialis posterior technique (from medial to lateral).TAPING TECHNIQUES RATIONALE: TIBIALIS ANTERIOR ± The rationale for this taping technique also involves a direct and indirect component. The direct component is for compression and to approximate the tendon back onto the bone. the indirect component is to support the extensor retinaculum and thereby take the pressure off of the tibialis anterior muscle. .
TAPING TECHNIQUES TIBIALIS ANTERIOR .
resulting in the repetitive injury of tendonitis. .TAPING TECHNIQUES PATELLAR TENDONITIS ± Is commonly referred to as jumper¶s or kicker¶s knee is a common condition which places extreme tension of the knee extensor muscle complex. TAPING POINTS: The strips cross in the front of the knee and the twisting of the tape adds strength. RATIONALE: The rationale for this taping technique is to act as a counter-force strap to dissipate stress away from the painful area on the lower third of the patellar tendon. TAPE USED: Full Strips of Tape.
TAPING TECHNIQUES PATELLAR TENDINITIS .
TAPING TECHNIQUES PATELLAR TENDONITIS BRACE .
TAPING TECHNIQUES PATELLAR TENDON BRACES (Counter Force Straps) .
A Muscular strain is tested via: ± Extensibility ± Contractibility ± Palpation ± Circumference This will give the examiner an idea of the degree of injury and the purpose for the wrap. .QUADRICEPS/HAMSTRING WRAPS The wrapping techniques for the upper thigh (Quadriceps/Hamstring) muscles can be used for a muscle strain or contusion.
UPPER LEG WRAPPING .
An injured finger can be taped against an adjacent finger for support (buddy system). . or a functional technique known as a µfinger spica¶ can be used.TAPING TECHNIQUES (Finger Injuries) Finger injuries are very common in sports like basketball and volleyball.
A position that the athlete will use their hands in) and then transverse strips are placed between the anchors. A final strips µpinches¶ the strips together. .TAPING TECHNIQUES FINGER/THUMB TAPING (SPICA TECHNIQUE) RATIONALE: The finger (and thumb) spica tape job is an alternative to the ³Buddy´ tape job when the athlete needs functional use of their hand. TAPE USED: One quarter strips. TAPING POINTS: Anchors should first be placed above and below the knuckles of the involved fingers. The hand is then placed in a functional position (ie. It will still allow for support but will help limit painful range of motion.
TAPING TECHNIQUES FINGER TAPING Buddy Technique .
TAPING TECHNIQUES Thumb/Finger Spica .
WRIST TAPING .
TAPE USED: Full Strips TAPING POINTS: There should be equal distance between the top and the bottom anchor with the mid point being at the carpal region of the wrist.TAPING TECHNIQUES WRIST TAPING (PREVENTION OF HYPEREXT/FLEX) Wrist injuries usually involve a hyper-flexion or hyperextension mechanism. This can damage a variety of structures in and around the wrist area. . This technique is very similar to the turf toe tape job. RATIONALE: The rationale for this type of taping is to prevent painful movement in either flexion or extension.
TAPING TECHNIQUES WRIST TAPING .
TAPING POINTS: Once the anchor is in place on the crease of the wrist.TAPING TECHNIQUES THUMB TAPING ± Thumb injuries such as Gamekeeper¶s thumb are common amongst athletes. . The mechanism of injury is usually a forceful abduction (and extension) of the proximal phalanx. TAPE USED: Full strips (Anchors) and one quarter strips. the smaller strips are started on the dorsum of the hand and finished on the palmer part of the anchor. especially to skiers and athletes involved in contact sports. RATIONALE: The Rationale for this technique is to limit painful range of motion.
TAPING TECHNIQUES THUMB TAPING .
RATIONALE: The Rationale for this tape job in to limit painful range at full extension or hyperextension. . TAPE USED: Full Strips.TAPING TECHNIQUES ELBOW HYPER-EXTENSION injuries are very common in contact sports such as wrestling and football as well as non-contact sports such as gymnastics. TAPING POINTS: This is the same technique as the wrist.
TAPING TECHNIQUES ELBOW HYPER-EXTENSION .
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