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O peration
Group 2 – 5A
Clark Vince Caezar J. Afable
Lawrence C. Allena
Norelle P. Basas
Jayson L. Cahinde
Ana Marie C. Camasin
Fatima Mary-Sol Centillas
Anthony L. Dacutanan
Christian Jenssen Royo
Dream Design Develop

Project With the start of construction operations in the field, the project takes
OperatIon on a different focus and the construction manager is called upon to perform a
variety of responsibilities aimed at effective and efficient use of resources in the
Phase assembly of the several parts of the project. All of the previous planning, design,
tendering and mobilisation have been the prelude to the actual performance of
field operations.
While some activities described in the previous chapter, such as
procurement and staffing, are likely to continue during the early stages of the
project operations phase, now the emphasis is on monitoring and controlling
various aspects of theproject, managing resources effectively and coordinating
the vital documentation and communication activities.
-The project programme represents the plan for the schedule of the work. Likewise, the
budget is the plan for the cost aspects of the work.
-During project operations, it is essential that actual performance be compared with
planned performance in all of these areas and action taken to remedy any indicated
- This responsibility is termed monitoring and control, where monitoring refers to methods
for comparing actual with planned performance and control denotes the actions taken to
attempt to bring deficient aspects of the project into conformance.

*Schedule Updating
-Often this task is carried out in conjunction with requests for payment prepared for
the owner; sometimes such a schedule updating is a condition precedent to the
approval of the payment request. The purpose is to determine whether the various
activities that were planned to be active during the previous period were actually
active, the extent of their progress and, especially, the anticipated project
completion date based on progress to date.
*Cost control
-The monitoring and control of costs during the construction operations phase, based
on whatever system was established during project mobilisation. Two related
Pillars of Success
outcomes are expected from the periodic monitoring of costs:
(1) identification of any work items whose actual costs are exceeding their budgeted costs,
with subsequent actions to try to bring those costs into conformance with the budget
(2) estimating the total cost of the project at completion, based on the cost record so far
and expectations of the cost to complete unfinished items.
Data Sources
-The various elements of construction costs include labour, materials, equipment (plant) and
subcontracts, as well as both project and general overhead costs. The control of labour
(including the labour portions of overheads) and equipment costs is probably subject to
more uncertainty than that for the other elements.
Cost reports
Cost reports are intended to provide timely information about the status of the project
budget so that managers can take any actions indicated to attempt to bring the project into
compliance with the original budget. They must be timely, being available soon after the
end of the period they cover. They must be as accurate as possible while meeting the
requirement for timeliness.
The first three columns – item number, item and unit – are copied directly from the project
budget (Table 4.1). Each of the columns in the quantity, cost and unit cost sections will be
described in turn.
-Quantity section
-Cost section
- Unit cost section

*Quality management
If monitoring and control are about schedule and cost, they are also surely about the
management of quality. Thus, this section is devoted to responsibilities the contractor
must fulfil in managing quality on the project, as well as some other more general
information about quality management in construction.
-In its broadest sense, quality is a degree of excellence: the extent to which something is fit
for its purpose. In the narrow sense, product or service quality is defined as conformance
with requirement, freedom from defects or contamination, or simply a degree of customer
Even before the project begins, the contractor is expected to have its company-wide
quality assurance/quality control programme in place. Quality in the Constructed Project: A
Guide for Owners, Designers and Constructors (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2000) lists
the following elements as appropriate for such a programme:
-Recruiting and assigning a skilled workforce
-Quality control organisation
-Project progress schedule
-Submittal schedule
-Quality control testing plan
-Documentation of quality control activities
-Procedures for corrective action when quality control and/or acceptance criteria
are not met.

The bidding documents require the contractor to submit a quality assurance plan,
and show proof of having met with quality specification under previous contracts.
The bid prices must reflect the quality requirements under ADB financed projects
and include for extra staff and equipment for quality assurance . . .
Among the project-specific requirements of the contractor’s quality assurance/quality
control programme are the following (American Society of Civil Engineers, 2000):
-Use of qualified subcontractors
- Inspection, control, and timely delivery of purchased materials, equipment, and Services
- Identification, inventory, and storage of materials, parts, and components pending
incorporation into the project
-Control of measuring and test equipment
-Segregation and disposition of nonconforming materials, equipment, or- components
-Maintenance of records specified by contract and required by the contractor’s
QA/QC programme to furnish evidence of activities affecting quality.

*Safety management
Although they are not part of the project manager’s ‘big three’ objectives of schedule,
budget and quality, the monitoring and control of safety and environmental impact are
major issues in all construction operations. If we think of time, cost and technical
performance as objectives to be optimised, or at least balanced, then we could consider
workplace safety and the impact of operations on the environment as constraints on the
attainment of those objectives.
The nature of the construction site is such that many hazards
can exist. In Table 6.4 we list some of the common hazards.
With the exception of ice and snow and the simplest of
*Environmental Management
-The impact of construction on the environment appears in many forms. These include
the selection of environmentally safe materials and products to be incorporated into
the project; theplanning and design work that can alter landforms, drainage,vegetation
and wildlife; and the long-term impact of projects, such as silting of dams, their effects
on fish and other animals and the flooding of upstream regions and the drying of
downstream regions. An entire book would

Environmental issues subject to monitoring and control by the construction contractor

includethe following.

1. Water drainage and runoff

As land is exposed and disturbed, soil erosion can increase markedly. Land patterns can
be altered and some of the soil can reach waterways. Measures such as silt fences and dams
may be required. Even if increased erosion does not occur, drainage patterns can be altered,
with consequent negative impacts on adjacent lands. Temporary drainage ditches may be
necessary to direct runoff in specified directions during construction operations.
2. Compacted soil from equipment operations
On level ground, the movement of trucks, lorries and other equipment can cause soil
compaction, increasing its impermeability and causing rainwater to stand on the surface
until it evaporates (Lowton, 1997). Temporary drainage works and the shaping of travelled
ways may be needed to carry rainwater away from the site.
3. Mud, dust and slurry from tyres
A further impact of rain and also of the use of water on the site is that the treads of
tyres can collect large quantities of mud or slurry, carrying it to roadways and other areas off
4. Air pollution
Dust can be produced not only from vehicle tyres but also from any operation that
involves soil, such as foundation excavation and the compaction of an embankment. Often
the contractor must dedicate one or more water carriers to the task of wetting the soil
surface to minimise the production of dust.
5. Contamination from petroleum and other spills
Spills at petroleum storage and transfer sites can make their way to the groundwater or
to watercourses. Dykes are used around storage areas to contain spills until they are
removed. Liners are placed under transfer locations, with dykes around them, for the same
6. Discharge into waters
Often the contractor must discharge water into a watercourse or water body, either
from a pipe or from a trench or channel. Laws often are strict regarding the composition of
such water. “Dredged spoil, solid waste, incinerator residue, sewage, garbage, sewage
sludge, munitions, chemical wastes, biological materials, radioactive materials, heat,
wrecked or discarded equipment, rock, sand, cellar dirt, and industrial, municipal and
agricultural waste discharged into water.”
7. Solid waste disposal
Despite all efforts to be efficient in the use of materials, any construction operation
produces large quantities of solid waste in such forms as timber, metals, plastics, paper,
stone and concrete, gypsum and rubber. In the past, much of this waste might have been
burned on the site, but concerns for air pollution have led to requirements that solid waste
be transported to landfills.
8. Products of demolition and renovation
Special care must be taken when the contractor carries out demolition or renovation of
existing structures and other facilities, as the process may expose undesirable materials and
components, both expected and unanticipated.
9. Worker sanitation
In our section on worksite layout, we noted the need to provide sufficient, well-placed
toilets and hand washing locations for workers. During project operations, these facilities
must be emptied, serviced and cleaned regularly. Workers must be required to use these
toilets, rather than the behind-the-tree alternatives, as the latter quickly become highly
malodorous and attractive to various vermin.
10. Endangered species
The contract documents are likely to contain instructions to the contractor for actions
to be taken when endangered species of flora and fauna are encountered. If these species
are known to exist on or near the site – an eagle-nesting area, for example – the documents
can contain detailed instructions. In case the contractor encounters such conditions
unexpectedly, proper actions will still have to be taken to comply with applicable law and
11. Wildlife protection
Even if wildlife is not classified as endangered, the contractor may have to comply with
public regulations and contract provisions that restrict its operations. The restrictions may
be for the protection of the wildlife or the protection of the project and its personnel from
the wildlife. In the former category, annual migration patterns of animals may not be
interrupted and construction work may be required to be suspended during those times.
11. Noise
There are many sources of noise on construction projects, including air compressors,
pile driving operations, vehicles, demolition work and drilling and blasting. Rather than
being subject to permits, noise concerns are usually governed by local ordinances, which
specify certain maximum allowed decibel levels, or sound pressure levels, at the project
property line. Typically, these allowable levels are higher during regular working hours and
lower in the early morning, evening and night time, when nearby residents tend to be at
12. Archaeology
Sometimes the excavation for a building or the earthmoving for a horizontal project will
uncover historic artefacts, including buildings or parts thereof, utensils, firesites, perhaps
grains and other products of agriculture and even human remains. The contract documents
ought to provide or both (1) a process by which the contractor is to deal with this discovery
and (2) a remedy for declaring a changed condition and relief for the contractor for the extra
time and expense required.
In this section we address the management of jobsite personnel and issues of labour
productivity,plus the management of materials and equipment.

*Personnel Supervision And Labour Productivity

Sources Of Craft Personnel, Their Assignment And Supervision
-Now, during project operations, their task is to provide the supervision that will get the
job done correctly and efficiently.
-Other important knowledge the construction manager must know about on-site
personnel management includes the methods by which craftspeople are hired. On a
union project, the source of labour is the union hiring hall.
-A qualified workforce is essential to successful construction management. Under
union contracting, the union supervises apprentice programmes that consist of a
combination of classroom instruction and on-the-job training.
-Part of the job of the labour supervisor is to complete and submit accurate time
records of those under their supervision as well as the task(s) to which they have been a
ssigned. Usually a timecard is completed daily for each work crew, as described earlier
in this chapter.
Labour Productivity
-Productivity in the construction industry is a major concern among all segments,
especially owners and contractors. In quantitative terms, productivity is often defined
as units or value of output, adjusted for inflation, divided by hours of labour or
equipment input (Adrian, 1987).

While factors other than those related to labour can cause wasted time and low
productivity, such as inefficient plant and tools, poor design and overly restrictive
governmental regulations, we focus now on factors that affect labour productivity on the
construction jobsite.
This includes both supervisory and craft personnel. Many contractor organisations provide
little or no training for forepersons and other supervisors.
Many aspects of the conditions under which employees are asked to work can influence
productivity, including jobsite layout and accessibility, the level of housekeeping and
cleanup, the potential for unsafe conditions and accidents and such inconveniences as
congestion and poor lighting, heating and ventilation.
We have already covered this all-important aspect of personnel supervision. Clough and
Sears (1994) report that some of the most common worker complaints that influence
motivation and thus disrupt productivity are unavailable material, unsafe working
conditions, having to rework already-completed parts of the job, unavailability of tools or
plant, lack of communication and disrespectful supervisors.
Both of these factors may be due to lack of motivation. Tardiness can be controlled by
establishing and enforcing reasonable and understandable working time rules.
The extent to which the contractor effectively coordinates the timing of the various project
activities can have a major impact on non-productive time. Through proper planning and
control of the schedule, all required predecessor activities should be completed before a
crew is sent to begin its task.
We deal with this topic in the next section. If materials are delivered late, if they are
incomplete or defective, if they are stored a long distance from the place where they will be
installed or if they must be double handled, delays or unnecessary work will occur.
‘All but the most basic of tasks on a site have seen changes due to advances in technology
over recent years’ (Haas et al., 1999). While reluctance to embrace these changes is
understandable in a fragmented industry with diverse standards and whose contractors may
enjoy only a brief strategic advantage from such adoption, the extent to which the
contractor is willing to implement these changes can impact productivity markedly.
There is some evidence (Clough and Sears, 1994) that scheduled overtime can be
counterproductive. A schedule under which hours worked extend beyond the normal 37.5 or
40 per week, if continued for several weeks, tends to result in decreased productivity.
Changes can come from the discovery of a latent condition, errors in construction
documents or requests by the owner. Whatever the source, the workflow can be
interrupted, crew and supervisor time can be consumed and confusion can result.
The fact that each project has at least some unique aspects means that some of the work
will be unfamiliar and thus will have to be learnt anew, resulting in inefficiencies not present
in more repetitive ‘assembly line’ types of operations. Efficiencies can be realised for those
work packages that can be planned and carried out in a cyclical, repetitive manner.
Precipitation and extremes of temperature and humidity have negative effects on
construction productivity. Dramatic decreases have been documented in extreme hot and
cold regions, wherethe contractor must provide extra liquids and extra rest periods, in the
case of hot weather for example, or where employees are burdened with bulky warm
clothing and extra time to warm up in cold regions.
The collective bargaining contract may provide for a quota of non-working forepersons,
mandated time off with pay for holidays and various union activities and crew sizes and
work assignments that otherwise could be more efficient.

*Materials Management
-The management of a construction project’s materials begins well before operations
start at the jobsite, as we have discussed in previous chapters. Technical specifications
prepared by the design professional designate the required material qualities and
sometimes specific manufacturers as well.
*Equipment management
-In this short section we consider the last of the four Ms, the primary resources that
must be managed on the construction site. Machinery in this context means the
machines that carry, hoist or otherwise move the various materials and components to
and around the site, plus other machines that remove, process or convert materials.
They are moved to the site for use during the construction operations phase and are
not incorporated into the finished project.

Equipment plays a larger role and has a larger proportion of the budget in a highway or
heavy construction project than it does in a project to construct a building. Hendrickson and
Au (1989) provide a helpful breakdown of common types of construction equipment.

• Excavation and loading. Crawler, truck or wheel mounted cranes, shovels, draglines,
tractors with blades (bulldozers) and scrapers.
• Compaction and grading. Various types of rollers, some vibratory, used to provide
mechanical means to increase soil density. Motor graders and grade trimmers to shape
soil and bring it to proper elevation.
• Drilling and blasting. Percussion, rotary and rotary-percussion drills to provide holes in
rock for the placement of explosives. Tractor-mounted rippers for penetrating and prying
rock. Automated tunnelling machines with multiple cutter heads capable of cutting full
diameter tunnels in rock.
• Lifting and erecting. Derricks and tower cranes, both of which are mounted in a
stationary position, plus truck- or tractor-mounted mobile cranes. Material and personnel
• Mixing and paving. Portland cement concrete mixers mounted on trucks, self-propelled
Portland cement concrete paving mixers, truck-mounted bituminous distributors and
bituminous paving machines.
• Construction tools and other equipment. Air compressors, pumps and such pneumatic or
electric tools as drills, hammers, concrete vibrators and saws.
The on-site management of a construction project involves great amounts of
paperwork, even for relatively small projects. The purpose, of course, is to communicate
directions, questions, answers, approvals, general information and other material to
appropriate members of the project team, so that the project can proceed in a timely, cost-
effective and quality manner.

-The drawings and specifications prepared by the design professional are the basis for
determining the contract price and for overall job planning, but in many cases they are
not sufficient for the fabrication and installation of the various job elements.
-The term submittals refers to the totality of the shop drawings, product data and
samples; all of these documents are submitted to the owner or owner’s representative
for approval prior to fabrication and manufacture of the items they represent.
-During the execution of the construction contract, one matter that requires careful
documentation and thorough communication is the case of changes in the work. In any
but the smallest and simplest of projects, it is common that some changes will be
made. Changes, also known as variations, arise for many reasons: the owner may
decide to add some new item to the project, delete some portion of it or add to, reduce
or modify an already defined part of the job.