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Acknowledgement

• The contents of these slides have origin from School of

Computing, National University of Singapore.

• We greatly appreciate support from Mr. Aaron Tan Tuck

Choy for kindly sharing these materials.

© IT - TDT Computer Organisation 3

• These contents are only used for students PERSONALLY.

• Students are NOT allowed to modify or deliver these

contents to anywhere or anyone for any purpose.

CS2100 MSI Components 4

• Number systems and codes Preparation: 2 weeks

• Boolean algebra

• Logic gates and circuits

• Simplification Logic Design: 3 weeks

• Combinational circuits

• Sequential circuits

• Performance

• Assembly language

• The processor: Datapath and control Computer

organisation

• Pipelining

• Memory hierarchy: Cache

• Input/output

CS2100 MSI Components 5

MSI COMPONENTS

• Introduction

• Decoders

• Encoders

• Demultiplexers

• Multiplexers

CS2100 MSI Components 6

INTRODUCTION

• Four common and useful MSI circuits:

• Decoder

• Demultiplexer

• Encoder

• Multiplexer

decoder encoder

code entity entity code

input

select select

CS2100 MSI Components 7

DECODERS (1/5)

• Codes are frequently used to represent entities, eg: your

name is a code to denote yourself (an entity!).

• These codes can be identified (or decoded) using a

decoder. Given a code, identify the entity.

• Convert binary information from n input lines to (maximum

of) 2n output lines.

• Known as n-to-m-line decoder, or simply n:m or nm

decoder (m 2n).

n

• May be used to generate 2 minterms of n input variables.

CS2100 MSI Components 8

DECODERS (2/5)

• Example: If codes 00, 01, 10, 11 are used to identify four

light bulbs, we may use a 2-bit decoder.

2x4

F0 Bulb 0

2-bit X Dec F Bulb 1

1

code Y

F2 Bulb 2

F3 Bulb 3

on the 2-bit code supplied.

Truth table: X Y F0 F1 F2 F3

0 0 1 0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 0

1 0 0 0 1 0

1 1 0 0 0 1

CS2100 MSI Components 9

DECODERS (3/5) X

0

Y F0

0 1

F1 F2 F3

0 0 0

0 1 0 1 0 0

• From truth table, circuit for 1 0 0 0 1 0

24 decoder is: 1 1 0 0 0 1

2-variable minterm

(X'Y', X'Y, XY' or XY) F1 = X'Y

F2 = XY'

F3 = XY

X Y

CS2100 MSI Components 10

DECODERS (4/5)

• Design a 38 decoder.

F0 = x'y'z'

x y z F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

F1 = x'y'z

0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0

F2 = x'yz'

0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

F3 = x'yz

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0

F4 = xy'z'

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 F5 = xy'z

F6 = xyz'

F7 = xyz

x y z

CS2100 MSI Components 11

DECODERS (5/5)

• In general, for an n-bit code, a decoder could

n

select up to 2 lines:

n-bit n to 2n up to 2n

code : decoder : output lines

CS2100 MSI Components 12

(1/5)

• A Boolean function, in sum-of-minterms form a decoder

to generate the minterms, and an OR gate to form the

sum.

• Any combinational circuit with n inputs and m outputs can

be implemented with an n:2n decoder with m OR gates.

• Good when circuit has many outputs, and each function is

expressed with few minterms.

CS2100 MSI Components 13

(2/5) x y z C S

0 0 0 0 0

• Example: Full adder 0 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 0 1

S(x, y, z) = S m(1,2,4,7) 0 1 1 1 0

C(x, y, z) = S m(3,5,6,7) 1 0 0 0 1

1 0 1 1 0

1 1 0 1 0

1 1 1 1 1

3x8 0

Dec 1 S

2

x S2 3

y S1 4

5 C

z S0 6

7

CS2100 MSI Components 14

(3/5)

x y z C S

3x8 0

Dec

0 0 0 0 0

1 S 0 0 1 0 1

2

0 1 0 0 1

0 x S2 3

0 1 1 1 0

0 y S1 4

1 0 0 0 1

5 C

0 z S0 1 0 1 1 0

6

1 1 0 1 0

7

1 1 1 1 1

CS2100 MSI Components 15

• Decoders often come with an enable control signal, so

that the device is only activated when the enable, E = 1.

• Truth table: F0 = EX'Y'

E X Y F0 F 1 F 2 F3

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 F1 = EX'Y

1 0 1 0 1 0 0

1 1 0 0 0 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 0 1 F2 = EXY'

0 X X 0 0 0 0

F3 = EXY

Circuit of a 24 decoder

with enable:

X Y E

CS2100 MSI Components 16

• In the previous slide, the decoder has a one-enable

control signal, i.e. the decoder is enabled with E=1.

• In most MSI decoders, enable signal is zero-enable,

usually denoted by E' or Ē. The decoder is enabled when

the signal is zero (low).

E X Y F0 F 1 F 2 F3 E' X Y F 0 F 1 F2 F 3

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0

1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1

0 X X 0 0 0 0 1 X X 0 0 0 0

CS2100 MSI Components 17

• Larger decoders can be 3x8

Dec 0 F0 = w'x'y'

F1 = w'x'y

constructed from smaller w S2 1

: :

x S1

ones. y S0 : :

7 F7 = wxy

can be built from two 24

2x4

decoders (with one- w Dec 0 F0 = w'x'y'

x S1 1 F1 = w'x'y

enable) and an inverter. y S0 2 F2 = w'xy'

E 3 F3 = w'xy

2x4

Dec 0 F4 = wx'y'

S1 1 F5 = wx'y

S0 2 F6 = wxy'

E 3 F7 = wxy

CS2100 MSI Components 18

3x8

0 F0 = w'x'y'

Dec

w S2 1 F1 = w'x'y

x S1 : :

: :

y S0

7 F7 = wxy

2x4

w Dec 0 F0 = w'x'y'

x S1 1 F1 = w'x'y

y S0 2 F2 = w'xy'

E 3 F3 = w'xy

2x4

Dec F4 = wx'y'

S1 F5 = wx'y

S0 F6 = wxy'

E F7 = wxy

CS2100 MSI Components 19

• Construct a 416 Dec 0 F0

w S3

decoder from two 38 x S2

1

:

F1

:

y S1

decoders with one- z S0

: :

15 F15

enable.

3x8

w Dec 0 F0

x S2

1 F1

y S1 : :

z S0 7 F7

E

3x8

Dec 0 F8

S2

1 F9

S1 : :

S0 7 F15

E

CS2100 MSI Components 20

• Note: The input, w and its complement, w', are used to

select either one of the two smaller decoders.

• Decoders may also have zero-enable and/or negated

outputs.

• Normal outputs = active high

• Negated outputs = active low

an ENABLE input for the 38 decoder and the 416

decoder created in the previous two slides?

• Exercise: How to construct a 416 decoder using five 24

decoders with enable?

CS2100 MSI Components 21

• 74138 (3-to-8 decoder)

(a) Logic circuit.

(b) Package pin configuration.

CS2100 MSI Components 22

(c) Function table.

(c)

(d) Generic symbol.

(e) IEEE standard logic symbol.

Source:The Data Book Volume 2, Texas

Instruments Inc.,1985

CS2100 MSI Components 23

REVISIT (1/2)

• Example: Implement the following function using a 38

decoder and appropriate logic gate

f(Q,X,P) = m(0,1,4,6,7) = M(2,3,5)

• We may implement the function in several ways:

• Using a decoder with active-high outputs with an OR gate:

f(Q,X,P) = m0 + m1 + m4 + m6 + m7

• Using a decoder with active-low outputs with a NAND gate:

f(Q,X,P) = (m0' m1' m4' m6' m7' )'

• Using a decoder with active-high outputs with a NOR gate:

f(Q,X,P) = (m2 + m3 + m5 )' [ = M2 M3 M5 ]

• Using a decoder with active-low outputs with an AND gate:

f(Q,X,P) = m2' m3' m5'

CS2100 MSI Components 24

f(Q,X,P) = Sm(0,1,4,6,7) = M(2,3,5)

REVISIT (2/2)

0 0

3x8 1 3x8 1

Dec 2 Dec 2

Q A 3 f(Q,X,P) Q A 3 f(Q,X,P)

B 4 B 4

X X

5 5

P C 6 P C 6

7 7

(a) Active-high decoder with OR gate. (b) Active-low decoder with NAND gate.

0 0

3x8 1 3x8 1

Dec 2 f(Q,X,P) Dec 2

f(Q,X,P)

Q A 3 Q A 3

B 4 B 4

X X

5 5

P C 6 P C 6

7 7

(c) Active-high decoder with NOR gate. (d) Active-low decoder with AND gate.

CS2100 MSI Components 25

READING ASSIGNMENT

• Reducing Decoders

• Read up DLD pg 136 – 140.

CS2100 MSI Components 26

ENCODERS (1/4)

• Encoding is the converse of decoding.

• Given a set of input lines, of which exactly one is high, the

encoder provides a code that corresponds to that input

line.

n

• Contains 2 (or fewer) input lines and n output lines.

• Implemented with OR gates.

• Example:

F0 D0

Select via F1 4-to-2

switches 2-bits

F2 Encoder D1 code

F3

CS2100 MSI Components 27

ENCODERS (2/4)

F0 F1 F2 F3 D1 D0

• Truth table: 1 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 1 0

With K-map, we obtain: 0 0 0 1 1 1

D0 = F1 + F3 0 0 0 0 X X

D1 = F2 + F3 0 0 1 1 X X

0 1 0 1 X X

0 1 1 0 X X

Circuit: 0 1 1 1 X X

1 0 0 1 X X

1 0 1 0 X X

1 0 1 1 X X

1 1 0 0 X X

1 1 0 1 X X

1 1 1 0 X X

1 1 1 1 X X

CS2100 MSI Components 28

ENCODERS (3/4)

• Example: Octal-to-binary encoder.

• At any one time, only one input line has a value of 1.

• Otherwise, we need priority encoder.

Inputs Outputs

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 x y z

1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1

0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

CS2100 MSI Components 29

ENCODERS (4/4)

• Example: Octal-to-binary encoder.

D0

D1 x = D 4 + D5 + D6 + D7

D2

D3 y = D 2 + D3 + D6 + D7

D4

D5

D6

D7 z = D 1 + D3 + D5 + D7

An 8-to-3 encoder

using K-map?

CS2100 MSI Components 30

• A priority encoder is one with priority

• If two or more inputs or equal to 1, the input with the highest

priority takes precedence.

• If all inputs are 0, this input combination is considered invalid.

• Example of a 4-to-2 priority encoder:

Inputs Outputs

D0 D1 D2 D3 x y V

0 0 0 0 X X 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 1

X 1 0 0 0 1 1

X X 1 0 1 0 1

X X X 1 1 1 1

CS2100 MSI Components 31

• Understanding “compact” function table

Inputs Outputs

Inputs Outputs

D0 D1 D2 D3 x y V

D0 D1 D2 D3 x y V

0 0 0 0 X X 0

0 0 0 0 X X 0

1 0 0 0 0 0 1

1 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 1 0 0 0 1 1

X 1 0 0 0 1 1

1 1 0 0 0 1 1

X X 1 0 1 0 1

0 0 1 0 1 0 1

X X X 1 1 1 1

0 1 1 0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0 1 0 1

1 1 1 0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1 1 1 1

Exercise: Obtain the 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

0 1 1 1 1 1 1

y and V.

1 0 0 1 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 0 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

CS2100 MSI Components 32

DEMULTIPLEXERS (1/2)

• Given an input line and a set of selection lines, a

demultiplexer directs data from the input to one selected

output line.

• Example: 1-to-4 demultiplexer.

Outputs

Y0 = D∙S1'∙S0' S1 So Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3

0 0 D 0 0 0

Y1 = D∙S1'∙S0

Data D demux

0 1 0 D 0 0

Y2 = D∙S1∙S0' 1 0 0 0 D 0

Y3 = D∙S1∙S0

1 1 0 0 0 D

S1 S0

select

CS2100 MSI Components 33

DEMULTIPLEXERS (2/2)

• It turns out that the demultiplexer circuit is actually

identical to a decoder with enable.

24 0 Y0 = ?

Decoder

S1 A 1 Y1 = ?

S0 B 2 Y2 = ?

E 3 Y3 = ?

CS2100 MSI Components 34

MULTIPLEXERS (1/5)

• A multiplexer is a device which has

• A number of input lines

• A number of selection lines

• One output line

n

• It steers one of 2 inputs to a single output line, using n

selection lines. Also known as a data selector.

n

2 :1

inputs Multiplexer output

:

...

select

CS2100 MSI Components 35

MULTIPLEXERS (2/5)

• Truth table for a 4-to-1 multiplexer:

I0 I1 I2 I3 S1 S0 Y S1 S0 Y

d0 d1 d2 d3 0 0 d0 0 0 I0

d0 d1 d2 d3 0 1 d1 0 1 I1

d0 d1 d2 d3 1 0 d2 1 0 I2

d0 d1 d2 d3 1 1 d3 1 1 I3

Inputs Inputs

I0 0 I0

I1 4:1 I1

1 4:1

MUX Y

I2 2 Y Output I2 mux

I3 3 I3

S1 S0

S1 S0

select select

CS2100 MSI Components 36

S1 S0 Y

MULTIPLEXERS (3/5) 0 0 I0

0 1 I1

• Output of multiplexer is

1 0 I2

“sum of the (product of data lines and selection lines)” 1 1 I3

Y=?

n n

• A 2 -to-1-line multiplexer, or simply 2 :1 MUX, is made

from an n:2n decoder by adding to it 2n input lines, one to

each AND gate.

CS2100 MSI Components 37

MULTIPLEXERS (4/5)

• A 4:1 multiplexer circuit:

I0 I0

I1 I1

Y Y

I2 I2

I3 I3

0 1 2 3

2-to-4

Decoder

S1 S0 S1 S0

CS2100 MSI Components 38

MULTIPLEXERS (5/5)

• An application:

number of devices.

At any time, only one source and one destination can

use the communication line.

CS2100 MSI Components 39

MULTIPLEXER IC PACKAGE

• Some IC packages have a few multiplexers in each

package (chip). The selection and enable inputs are

common to all multiplexers within the package.

A0

Y0

A1

Y1

A2

Y2

A3

Y3

B0

B1 E’ S Output Y

1 X all 0’s

B2 0 0 select A

B3 0 1 select B

S

(select)

E' Quadruple 2:1 multiplexer

(enable)

CS2100 MSI Components 40

• Larger multiplexers can be constructed from smaller ones.

• An 8-to-1 multiplexer can be constructed from smaller

multiplexers like this (note placement of selector lines):

I0 S2 S1 S0 Y

I1 4:1 0 0 0 I0

I2 MUX

I3 0 0 1 I1

0 1 0 I2

2:1 0 1 1 I3

S1 S0 MUX Y

I4

1 0 0 I4

I5 1 0 1 I5

4:1

I6 1 1 0 I6

MUX S2

I7 1 1 1 I7

S1 S0

CS2100 MSI Components 41

I0

I1 I0 I1 I2

4:1 S2 S1 S0 Y

I2 MUX

I3 0 0 0 I0

2:1 0 0 1 I1

S 1 S0 MUX Y I0 I1 I6

0 1 0 I2

I4

I5 4:1 I4 I5 I6 0 1 1 I3

I6 MUX S2

1 0 0 I4

I7 1 0 1 I5

S 1 S0 1 1 0 I6

1 1 1 I7

• When S2S1S0 = 000

When S2S1S0 = 110

CS2100 MSI Components 42

• Another implementation of an 8-to-1 multiplexer using

smaller multiplexers:

When

I0 2:1 I0 S2S1S0 = 000 S2 S1 S0 Y

I1 MUX 0 0 0 I0

0 0 1 I1

I2 2:1 I2 S0 0 1 0 I2

I3 MUX 0 1 1 I3

4:1 I0 1 0 0 I4

S0 MUX Y 1 0 1 I5

1 1 0 I6

I4 2:1 I4 1 1 1 I7

I5 MUX

S2 S1

S0 I6 2:1

I7 MUX I6

Q: Can we use only 2:1 multiplexers?

S0

CS2100 MSI Components 43

• A 16-to-1 multiplexer can

be constructed from five

4-to-1 multiplexers:

CS2100 MSI Components 44

(b)

CS2100 MSI Components 45

(c)

74151A 8-to-1 multiplexer. (c) Logic diagram. (d) Generic logic symbol.

(e) IEEE standard logic symbol.

Source: The TTL Data Book Volume 2. Texas Instruments Inc.,1985.

CS2100 MSI Components 46

MULTIPLEXERS: IMPLEMENTING

FUNCTIONS (1/3)

• Boolean functions can be implemented using

multiplexers.

n

• A 2 -to-1 multiplexer can implement a Boolean function of

n input variables, as follows:

1. Express in sum-of-minterms form. Example:

F(A,B,C) = A'B'C + A'BC + AB'C + ABC'

= S m(1,3,5,6)

2. Connect n variables to the n selection lines.

3. Put a ‘1’ on a data line if it is a minterm of the function, or ‘0’

otherwise.

CS2100 MSI Components 47

MULTIPLEXERS: IMPLEMENTING

FUNCTIONS (2/3)

• F(A,B,C) = S m(1,3,5,6)

0

1

0

1

This method works because:

0 2

F

Output = m0I0 + m1I1 + m2I2 + m3I3

1 3 mux

0 4 + m4I4 + m5I5 + m6I6 + m7I7

1 5

1

0

6

7 Supplying ‘1’ to I1,I3,I5,I6 , and ‘0’ to

A B C

the rest:

Output = m1 + m3 + m5 + m6

CS2100 MSI Components 48

MULTIPLEXERS: IMPLEMENTING

FUNCTIONS (3/3)

• Example: Use a 74151A to implement

f(x1,x2,x3) = S m(0,2,3,5)

(a) Truth table.

(b) Implementation with 74151A.

CS2100 MSI Components 49

n

• Earlier, we saw how a 2 -to-1 multiplexer can be used to

implement a Boolean function of n (input) variables.

(n-1)

• However, we can use a single smaller 2 -to-1

multiplexer to implement a Boolean function of n (input)

variables.

• Example: The function

F(A,B,C) = S m(1,3,5,6)

can be implemented using a 4-to-1 multiplexer (rather

than an 8-to-1 multiplexer).

CS2100 MSI Components 50

• Let’s look at this example:

F(A,B,C) = S m(0,1,3,6) = A'B'C' + A'B'C + A'BC + ABC'

1 0

1 1

0 2 1 0

1 3 mux F C 1 F

0 4 mux

0 5 0 2

1 6 C' 3

0 7

A B C A B

selection lines of the multiplexer, while the inputs of the

multiplexer contain 1, C, 0 and C'.

CS2100 MSI Components 51

• Procedure

1. Express Boolean function in sum-of-minterms form.

Example: F(A,B,C) = S m(0,1,3,6)

least significant one) for input lines of multiplexer, and

use the rest for selection lines.

Example: C is for input lines; A and B for selection lines.

CS2100 MSI Components 52

3. Draw the truth table for function, by grouping inputs by

selection line values, then determine multiplexer inputs by

comparing input line (C) and function (F) for corresponding

selection line values.

MUX

A B C F

input

0 0 0 1 ? 0

0 0 1 1 ? 1 F

mux

0 1 0 0 ? 2

0 1 1 1 ? 3

1 0 0 0

1 0 1 0 A B

1 1 0 1

1 1 1 0

CS2100 MSI Components 53

• Alternative: What if we use A for input lines, and B, C for

selector lines?

A B C F Mux A B C F

Input

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

1

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0 A' (when BC = 00)

0 1 1 1

C 0 1 0 0

1 0 0 0

0 0 1 1 1

1 0 1 0

1 1 0 1

1 0 0 0

C’

1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0

1 1 0 1

? 0 1 1 1 0

? 1 F

mux

? 2

? 3

B C

CS2100 MSI Components 54

• Example: Implement the function below with 74151A:

f(x1,x2,x3,x4) = S m(0,1,2,3,4,9,13,14,15)

CS2100 MSI Components 55

Input data

Lines Lines 8 lines

11 10 0–9 0–1023

DATA (8) (8)

ADRS (10)

2x4

CS

decoder 1K x 8

RW

S0 0 1024 – 2047

1 DATA (8) (8)

S1 2 ADRS (10)

3 CS

1K x 8

RW

2048 – 3071

Read/write DATA (8) (8)

ADRS (10)

CS

1K x 8

RW

3072 – 4095

DATA (8)

(8)

ADRS (10)

CS

1K x 8 Output

RW

data

CS2100 MSI Components 56

PCSrc

1

Add M

u

x

4 ALU 0

Add result

RegWrite Shift

left 2

Read register 1 Read MemWrite

PC data 1

address Instruction [20– 16] Read MemtoReg

ALUSrc

Instruction register 2 Zero

1 Read ALU ALU

[31– 0] Write data 2 1 Read

M result Address 1

u register M data

Instruction Instruction [15– 11] x u M

memory Write x u

0 data Registers x

0

Write Data 0

RegDst data memory

Instruction [15– 0] 16 Sign 32

extend ALU MemRead

control

Instruction [5– 0]

ALUOp

© IT - TDT Computer Organisation 57

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