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PLANE and SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY

Chapter 2: IDENTITIES

Recall:
(0,1) Note that

sin 𝜃 = 𝑦
(-1,0) (1,0)
cos 𝜃 = 𝑥

(0,-1)

(0,1)

(-1,0) (1,0)
In summary, for
(0,-1)

𝜽 0 𝝅 𝝅 𝟑𝝅 𝟐𝝅
𝟐 𝟐

sin 𝜃 0 1 0 -1 0

cos 𝜃 1 0 -1 0 1

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

For the graph of sine
function
𝑦 (0,1)

(-1,0) (1,0)
𝑥

(0,-1)

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

For the graph of cosine
function

(1,0) 𝑥

(0,1) (0,-1)
𝑦

(-1,0)

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

For both the graphs of sine and cosine
functions:

1. Domain: {𝑥|𝑥 ∈ ℛ}
2. Range: {𝑦| − 1 ≤ 𝑦 ≤ 1}
3. Period: 2𝜋
4. Amplitude: 1

Note: period – length of one complete cycle,

amplitude – ‘height’
CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
Basic graphs:
𝑦 = sin 𝜃 𝑦 = −sin 𝜃

𝑦 = cos 𝜃 𝑦 = −cos 𝜃

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

General forms:
𝑦 = a𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑏 𝑥 − ℎ + 𝑘
𝑦 = a𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑏 𝑥 − ℎ + 𝑘

𝑎 → affects amplitude
𝑏 → affects period
ℎ → affects horizontal shift
𝑘 → affects vertical shift

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

ILLUSTRATIONS: Graph the following:
1. 𝑦 = 5 sin 2𝑥
𝜋
2. 𝑦 = −2cos(𝑥 − 6
)
𝜋
3. 𝑦 = 1 + cos(3𝑥 + )
2
1
4. 𝑦 = sin (𝑥
2
+ 𝜋)
𝜋
5. 𝑦 = −3 cos (𝑥
2
− 2)

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

8 FUNDAMENTAL IDENTITIES:
1
1. csc 𝜃 = 6. sin2 𝜃 + cos 2 𝜃 = 1
sin 𝜃
1
2. sec 𝜃 = 7. 1 + tan2 𝜃 = sec 2 𝜃
c𝑜𝑠 𝜃
1
3. c𝑜𝑡 𝜃 = 8. 1 + cot 2 𝜃 = csc 2 𝜃
tan 𝜃
sin 𝜃
4. 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃 =
cos 𝜃
cos 𝜃
5. c𝑜𝑡 𝜃 =
sin 𝜃

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

ILLUSTRATION: Evaluate the other five
trigonometric ratios given the ff:
2
1. sin 𝑥 = , 𝑄𝐼
3
4
2. cos 𝑥 = − , 𝑄𝐼𝐼
5
8
3. tan 𝑥 = , 𝑄𝐼𝐼𝐼
5
3
4. cot 𝑥 = , 𝑄𝐼
7
4
5. sec 𝑥 = , 𝑄𝐼𝑉
3
5
6. csc 𝑥 = , 𝑄𝐼𝐼
4
CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
Proving Identities:
1. tan 𝑥 ∙ cos 𝑥 = sin 𝑥
2. tan2 𝑥 = sin2 𝑥 + sin2 𝑥 ∙ tan2 𝑥
3. cot 2 𝑥 ∙ sec 2 𝑥 = 1 + cot 2 𝑥
4. csc 2 𝑥 − cot 2 𝑥 = cos2 𝑥 + sin2 𝑥
5. sin 𝑥 + cos 𝑥 = (1 + tan 𝑥) cos 𝑥
2 1−cos 𝑥
6. csc 𝑥 − cot 𝑥 = 1+cos 𝑥
7. sec 2 𝑥 − 1 csc 2 𝑥 − 1 = 1
8. cos2 𝑥 + 2 sin2 𝑥 = 1 + sin2 𝑥
CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
Sum and Difference Identities

sin 𝐴 ± 𝐵 = sin 𝐴 cos 𝐵 ± cos 𝐴 sin 𝐵.

cos 𝐴 ± 𝐵 = cos 𝐴 cos 𝐵 ∓ sin 𝐴 sin 𝐵.
tan 𝐴±tan 𝐵
tan 𝐴 ± 𝐵 = .
1∓tan 𝐴 ∙𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝐵

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

Double Measure Identities
sin 2𝐴 = 2 sin 𝐴 cos 𝐴.
cos 2𝐴 = cos 2 𝐴 − sin2 𝐴.
cos 2𝐴 = 2 cos 2 −1.
cos 2𝐴 = 1 − 2 sin2 𝐴.
2 tan 𝐴
tan 2𝐴 = 2 .
1−tan 𝐴

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

Half Measure Identities
1 ± 1−cos 𝐴 1 1−cos 𝐴
sin 𝐴 = . tan 𝐴 = .
2 2 2 sin 𝐴
1 ± 1+cos 𝐴 1 sin 𝐴
cos 𝐴 = . tan 𝐴 = .
2 2 2 1+𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝐴

1 1−cos 𝐴
tan 𝐴 =± .
2 1+cos 𝐴

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

ILLUSTRATIONS:
3 5
1. Given sin 𝐴 = and cos 𝐵 = where 𝐴 ∈
,
5 13
𝑄𝐼 and 𝐵 ∈ 𝑄𝐼𝑉, find
a. sin(𝐴 + 𝐵) d. cos 2𝐴
𝐴
b. cos(𝐴 − 𝐵) e. tan
2
c. cos 2𝐴

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

ILLUSTRATIONS:
3 7
2. Given sin 𝐴 = (𝑄𝐼)and cos 𝐵 = (𝑄𝐼),
2 25
find
a. sin(𝐴 − 𝐵) c. co𝑡 2𝐴
𝐵
b. cos(𝐴 − 𝐵) d. c𝑠𝑐
2
1
3. Given tan 𝐴 = and tan 𝐵 = 3, find
2
a. tan(𝐴 + 𝐵)
b. co𝑡(𝐴 − 𝐵)

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

PROVING EXERCISES:

1. sin 𝑥 − 𝑦 − sin 𝑥 + 𝑦 = −2 cos 𝑥 sin 𝑦

𝜋 1−tan 𝜃
2. tan − 𝜃 =
4 1+tan 𝜃
sin 2𝐴 cos 2𝐴
3. sin 𝐴

cos 𝐴
= sec 𝐴
1
4. tan 𝑥 = csc 𝑥 − cot 𝑥
2

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

PROVING EXERCISES:

5. sin 3𝑥 = 3 sin 𝑥 − 4 sin3 𝑥

6. cos 3𝑥 = 4 cos3 𝑥 − 3 cos 𝑥
1+tan2 𝜃
7. sec 2𝜃 = 1−tan2 𝜃
8. 2 cot 𝑥 ∙ cot 2𝑥 = cot 2 𝑥 − 1

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
Definitions:

𝑦 = 𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝑥 if and only

𝜋
if 𝑥𝜋 = sin 𝑦,
𝐷: 𝑥 −1 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 1 , 𝑅: {𝑦| − ≤ 𝑦 ≤ }
2 2

𝑦 = 𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑥 if and only if 𝑥 = cos 𝑦,

𝐷: 𝑥 −1 ≤ 𝑥 ≤ 1 , 𝑅: {𝑦|0 ≤ 𝑦 ≤ 𝜋}

𝑦 = 𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝑥 if and only if 𝑥 = tan 𝑦,

𝜋 𝜋
𝐷: 𝑥 𝑥 ∈ ℛ , 𝑅: {𝑦| − < 𝑦 < }
2 2

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

ILLUSTRATIONS:
Give the numerical value for the following:
1
1. sin(2𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑠 )
2
1 3
2. tan 𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑠𝑖𝑛
2 5
4 4
3. sin 𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑠 +
5
𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑠𝑖𝑛
5
4
4. cos 2𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑠𝑖𝑛
5
5. tan 2𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛 −1
6. tan(𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛 2 − 𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑡 3)
CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS
TRIGONOMETRIC EQUATIONS
Recall:

• Fundamental Identities
• Special Trigonometric Function Values

Fundamental Solution Set

- solution set whose values are restricted with
one complete interval, i.e., within [0,2𝜋).

ILLUSTRATIONS:

Find the fundamental solution set for each of

the following:

1. cos 𝑥 = sec 𝑥
2. tan 𝑥 = cot 𝑥
3. sin 𝑥 = 3 cos 𝑥
4. cos2 𝑥 − sin2 𝑥 = sin 𝑥

CS 137: DISCRETE MATHEMATICS

ILLUSTRATIONS:
5. 2 cos 𝑥 + sec 𝑥 = 3
6. sin2 𝑥 + tan2 𝑥 = 3 cos 2 𝑥
7. csc 2 𝑥 + cot 2 𝑥 = 2
𝜋
8. 𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑠𝑖𝑛 3𝑥 =
6
1 𝜋
9. 𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑐𝑜𝑠 2
𝑥 =
4
2 𝜋
10. 𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝑥 − 3 =
4
𝜋
11. 𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛 2𝑥 − 𝐴𝑟𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝑥 =
4