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# Department of Mechanical Engineering

Thermodynamics

Lecture 28

## Internal Combustion Engine Models

The Otto Cycle
The Diesel Cycle
IC Engine Terminology
Finally … here is one of the reasons we spent so much
time analyzing piston-cylinder assemblies in the early part of
the course!

VTDC

## Vdisp  VBDC  VTDC

VBDC
CR 
VTDC

VBDC

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IC Engine Terminology
• Ignition Source
– Gasoline engines  spark plug
– Diesel engines  fuel injection
• 4-Stroke Engine
– Four strokes (intake, compression, power stroke,
exhaust) are executed for every two revolutions
of the crankshaft, and one thermodynamic cycle
• 2-Stroke Engine
– Two strokes (intake, compression, power stroke,
and exhaust) are executed for every one
revolution of the crankshaft, and one
thermodynamic cycle
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IC Engine Performance
Thermal Efficiency
Wnet
th 
Qin
Mean Effective Pressure

## net work for one cycle

mep 
displacement volume

## Note: MEP is relatively consistent for given engine types,

regardless of displacement. This means that it is fairly easy to
predict net work if you know the engine type and the displaced
volume.

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Modeling the IC Engine
• Air Standard Analysis (ASC or hot ASC)
– The working fluid is a fixed mass of air treated as
an ideal gas
• No intake or exhaust
– The combustion process is replaced with a heat
transfer from a high-temperature source
– The exhaust process is replaced with a heat
transfer to a low-temperature sink
– All processes are internally reversible
• Cold Air Standard Analysis (cold ASC)
– All of the above
– Heat capacity of the air is assumed to be constant
at the ambient temperature

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P
SI Engine - Otto Cycle 3

1 2 3 4
TDC 2

BDC
1
TDC BDC
v
• 1-2 Isentropic compression from BDC to TDC
T
W12  m  u2  u1  3

## • 2-3 Isochoric heat input (combustion)

Q23  m  u3  u2 
• 3-4 Isentropic expansion (power stroke)
W34  m  u3  u4 
4
2

## • 4-1 Isochoric heat rejection (exhaust)

Q41  m  u4  u1  1
s

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P
Otto Cycle Performance 3

Compression Ratio
2
v1 v4
CR   4
v2 v3
1
TDC BDC
Thermal Efficiency v
T
3
Wnet W34  W12 u u
th,ASC    1 4 1
Qin Q23 u3  u2

T 4
th ,cold ASC  1  1  1  CR1 k 2
T2

1
s

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P
Otto Cycle Performance 3

## Mean Effective Pressure

2

W  W12  u3  u4    u2  u1 
4
W
mep  net  34 
Vdisp Vdisp  v1  v2 
1
TDC BDC
v
cv T3  T4   T2  T1  
mepcold ASC  T
 v1  v2  3

## Cold ASC values (Table C.13a) ...

Btu Btu 4
c p  0.24 cv  0.172 2
lbm-R lbm-R
cp
k  1.4 1
cv s

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P
CI Engine - Diesel Cycle
2 3

1 2 3 4
TDC

4
BDC
1
TDC BDC
v
• 1-2 Isentropic compression from BDC to TDC
T
W12  m  u2  u1 
• 2-3 Isobaric heat input (combustion) 3

Q23  W23  m  u3  u2 
• 3-4 Isentropic expansion (power stroke) 2
4
W34  m  u3  u4 
• 4-1 Isochoric heat rejection (exhaust)
Q41  m  u4  u1  1
s

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P
Diesel Cycle Performance
2 3

## Compression Ratio Cutoff Ratio

v1 v3
CR  CO 
v2 v2 4

1
TDC BDC
Thermal Efficiency v
T
Wnet W23  W34  W12 u u
th,ASC    1 4 1 3
Qin Q23 h3  h 2
2

CR1 k  CO k  1 4

## th ,cold ASC  1 

k  CO  1
1
s

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P
Diesel Cycle Performance
2 3

## Wnet W23  W34  W12  h3  h 2    u4  u1 

mep   
 v1  v2 
4
Vdisp Vdisp
1
TDC BDC

c p T3  T2   cv T4  T1 
v
mepcold ASC  T
 v1  v2 
3

## Cold ASC values (Table C.13a) ...

2
Btu Btu 4
c p  0.24 cv  0.172
lbm-R lbm-R
cp
k  1.4 1
cv s

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Cycle Evaluation
• Strategy
– Build the property table first, then do the
thermodynamic analysis
• Real fluid model
– EES (fluid name = ‘air_ha’)
• Air standard model
– Ideal gas with variable heat capacities
• Table C.16 (Air Tables)
• EES (fluid name = ‘air’)
• Cold air standard model
– Ideal gas with constant heat capacities evaluated
at the beginning of compression
• Atmospheric conditions

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IC Engine Performance
• Known Parameters
– Number of cylinders in the engine
– Enough information to determine
the mass of the air trapped in the
cylinder
– Engine ratios (compression and cutoff)
– Rotational speed of the engine (rpm)
– Engine type
• All cylinders complete a thermodynamic cycle in either
two or four strokes
– P and T at the beginning of compression
– P or T at the end of combustion

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IC Engine Performance
The power developed by the engine can be determined by

 
Wnet  NcylWnet  
 r
N

## Crankshaft rotational speed

Number of cylinders  rev 
 Btu   min   hp-min 
Wnet   cyl    
 cyl-cycle   rev   Btu 
 cycle 
 
From the Otto or
conversion factor
Diesel Cycle analysis

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