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# A

Presentation
On

## Prepared by:- Guided by:-

Ms. Kinjal R. Patil (140500109044) Mr. Priyank Shah
Krutika A. Sapkal (150503109009) Assistant Professor
BE (5th sem)
Sigma Institutes of Engineering,
Introduction
 A signal flow graph is a graphical representation of the relationship between
variables of a set of linear algebraic equations.
 Signal-flow graphs are an alternative to block diagrams.
 Signal flow graphs are a pictorial representation of the simultaneous
equations describing a system.
 Signal flow graphs display the transmission of signals through the system, as
does the block diagrams, but it is easier to draw and easier to manipulate
than the block diagrams.
Fundamentals of Signal Flow Graph
 Consider a simple equation below and draw its signal flow graph:

x2 = Ax1
A
x1 x2

##  Every variable in a signal flow graph is designed by a Node.

 Every transmission function in a signal flow graph is designed by a Branch.
 Branches are always unidirectional.
 The arrow in the branch denotes the direction of the signal flow.
 The variables X1 and X2 are represented by a small dot or circle called a Node.
 The transmission function A is represented by a line with an arrow called a
Branch.
 The Node X1 is called input node and Node X2 is called output node.
Mason’s Gain Rule
• Once the signal flow graph is obtained,overall transfer function of the system is
calculated using the Mason’s gain formula which is given below,

Where,
i = number of forward paths.
Fi = the ith forward-path.
∆ = System determinant which is calculated as follows.
∆ = 1 –(∑ loop gains)+(∑ gain products of two non-touching loops) – (∑ gain
products of three non-touching loops)+ . . .
∆ = 1-(L11+L21+...)+(L12+L22+L32+...)-(L13+L23+L33+...)
∆i = (1- All the loops that do not touch the ith forward path.)

• Two loops, paths, or loop and a path are said to be non-touching if they have no
nodes in common..
Properties
 It applies only to time-invariant linear systems.
 The signal flow is along the direction of arrows.
 The gain of SFG is given by Mason’s equation.
 Every block diagram can be represented by SFG but the converse is not true.
 The value of variable at each node is equal to the algebric sum of all signals
entering at that node.
Example 1
Convert the given block diagram to a signal flow graph.

 In the above block diagram there is one summing point and one take
point.H(s) is connected as a negative feedback.
We present the summing block and the take-off point as nodes.The transfer
function blocks are written as branch gains.
Example 2
Draw the corresponding signal flow graph and evaluate closed loop transfer
function using Mason’s Gain formula.

Solution ;

The signal flow graph of the above block diagram is shown in the figure below.
Step 1: Obtain total number of forward paths ;
F1 = G 1 G 2
F2 = G 2 G 3
Step 2: Obtain total number of single loops ;
L11 = -G3H1
Step 3,4 : There are no two/three non-touching loops ;
Step 5: Find out value of ∆ ;
∆ = 1 – (L11)
= 1 + G3H1
Step 6: Find out value of ∆ 1, ∆ 2 ;
∆ 1= 1
∆ 2= 1
Step 7 : Obtain transfer function ;
T.F. = F1 ∆ 1 + F2∆ 2 /∆
= G1G3 + G2G3 / 1+ G3H1
Example 3
Obtain the transfer function.

Solution ;
Step 1: Obtain total number of forward paths ;
F1 = G1G2G4
F2 = G1G3 G4
Step 2: Obtain total number of single loops ;
L1 = G1 G4 H1
L2 = -G1G2G4H2
L3 = -G1G3 G4 H2
Step 3,4 : There are no two/three non-touching loops ;
Step 5: Find out value of ∆ ;
∆ = 1 – (L1 + L2 + L3)
= 1 – (G3 G4 H1-G1G2G4H2 -G1G3 G4 H2 )
Step 6: Find out value of ∆ 1, ∆ 2 ;
∆ 1= 1
∆ 2= 1
Step 7 : Obtain transfer function ;
T.F. = F1 ∆ 1 + F2∆ 2 /∆
= G1G2G4 + G1G3 G4 / 1- G1 G4 H1 +G1G2G4H2 + G1G3 G4 H2