In this talk: •Beauty is skin deep! •X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy •Scanning Tunneling Microscopy •Some of our work using these

Dangling bonds

(2x1) (1x1)

Buildings. genetic engg. semiconductors nterfaces: Solar cells. Optical. vehicles. smart drugs. bridges.Catalysis and Chemical Reactions : Petroleum and Chemicals Corrosion and segregation: Oil. machines All applications. magnetic Paints and Coatings: Brittle Fracture: Turbo machines. Semiconductors. Magnetic Nanostructures: Crystal Growth: Contaminants: Medicine. gas pipe lines. strucut Semiconductor Interfaces: Microelectronics and future devices Thermionic Emission: Desplay devices. night vision. electrical. TV tubes. wear & protection. tooth and bone implants . LCD Optical. PDP. Food..

Surface Science and Nano-science Semiconductor nanoparticles Self assembly by heteroepitaxy Surface atoms .Reduced Co-ordination Nanophase .Most are surface atoms ! .

3D 2D-sheet 1D.wire 0D-dot Density of states: Where electrons can stay ! .

10 nm size Atom Molecule Solid Conduction Band Band Gap Valence Band Size Band Gap .CdSe nanoparticles 1.

Dangling bonds Confinement: Particle in a box Nano-phase atoms .All surface atoms ! n=4 n=3 % of surface atoms Surface to volume ratio Surface to Volume Ratio 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 No of atoms/cluster n=2 n=1 Discrete energy levels Quantization .

of Vacuum (Pressure) (Torr) Atmospheric Low Medium High UltraHigh 760 1 10-3 10-6 10-10 Mean Free Path (m) 7 x 10-8 5 x 10-5 5 x 10-2 50 5 x 105 Time / ML (s) 10-9 10-6 10-3 1 104 .Study surfaces: Need for Ultra high vacuum Surface sensitive probes Deg.

Electrons as probes: Small size. charge and large scattering .

3.11 Base Pressure: 3x10-11 Torr XPS (Perkin Elmer: 1257) AES (Varian VT 112) Techniques: 1. 2. 4. Auger Electron Spectroscopy Low Energy Electron Diffraction X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Energy Loss Spectroscopy .



Aspects of Heteroepitaxial Growth Hetero: Epi: Taxy: Different Upon Ordered • • • Aspects of Heteroepitaxial Growth: Lattice Mismatch Ni/Ru(001) Surface Free Energy Pt/W(111) Dangling bond M/Si(111). assembly . (100) Nanostructures: Controlled sizes.

Binding Inter-diffu Growth Modes: Wolmer Weber (island) Frank van der Merwe (layer) Stranski-Krastanov (layers + island) . Kinetics Step Special Diffu.Heteroepitaxial Growth (Interface Formation): Arrival Re-evap. 1/τ a = ν exp(-Ea/kT) Thermodynamics vs.

Is/Iso = (1-x) exp(-nl/λ ) + x exp[-(n+1)l/λ ] 0≤ x≤ 1 .

Ideally terminated Si surface Surfaces Dangling bonds .


A new approach to the formation of compatible substrates for GaN growth .

Advantages of Solid State Lighting technology • • • • • Highly efficient light sources Substantial reduction in electrical energy consumption Substantial improvements in human visual experience (True white light) Cheaper and long lasting. no sudden breakdowns Creation of III-V semiconductor technologies .

Signs 3. Others (biological) 5. Mobile 2. Signals 40% 23% 18% 12% 5% 2% .Solid State Lighting : Prospects and progress E ffic ie n c y o f W h ite L E D s 120 100 Lumens per watt 80 60 40 20 0 -2 1 9 8 5 0 1990 1995 2000 Ye a r 2005 2010 2015 Uses of LED: 1. Automotive 4. Illumination 6.

InGaN based Photovoltaics:
Efficiency of > 70% - Achievable 50%

Involves deposition of multi-layers:

Standard LED design

Saphire (Al2O3) and GaN •Lattice Parameter Mismatch (13%) •Thermal Expansion Mismatch (33%) GaN on SiC and GaAs .

NC. a market leader in LED solid-state lighting components.” stated Fritz Morgan. while compact fluorescent lamps range from 50 to 60 lumens per watt. Cree reported results of 131 lumens per watt white LED efficacy. As a reference. a leading innovator of LED lighting systems and technologies. 2007 — Cree. Inc.High Defect Density > 1010 /cm3 Cree Demonstrates 131 Lumens per Watt White LED DURHAM. JUNE 20. “This result once again demonstrates Cree’s leadership in LED technology and provides a glimpse into the future as to why we believe LED-based lighting products could not only save energy. Cree general manager. GaN buffer layers . LED chips. today announced LED efficacy test results that set a new benchmark for the LED industry.” said Scott Schwab. Lumens-per-watt is the standard used by the lighting industry to measure the conversion of electrical energy to light. Cree’s results speak to the exciting developments underway that will enable new white light applications and subsequently facilitate market adoption. Maryland. chief technology officer for Color Kinetics. “This is the highest level of efficacy that has been publicly reported for a white LED and raises the bar for the LED industry. (Nasdaq: CREE). conventional incandescent light bulbs are typically in the 10 to 20 lumens per watt range. but also change the way people use light. Tests were performed using prototype white LEDs with Cree EZBright™ LED chips operating at 20 mA and a correlated color temperature of 6027 K. confirmed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg.” “Technical advancements at the component level are critical to growing the emerging white LED lighting space.

types of defects (70 arc.Outstanding limits: • • • • • Green emission (Indium incorporation) Si wafer technology adaptation (SiC epitaxial layer) Defect density.sec assymetric XRD) Band dispersion and surface/interface modifications Substrate Thermal Conductivity .

763 lum/watt) 1. Problems in p-type doping (Si doping – lattice expansion) H-ions from ammonia detrimental Substrate compatibility (lattice mismatch): Sapphire. Si Substrate Thermal Conductivity: Defect density (lateral epitaxial growth): Reduction of Schowbel barrier Dislocation density: Effects on Quantum Efficiency and Life time Layer Thickness Control : Layer uniformity Thin metal contacts: Al. AlN. 6. 6. 2. Ti and Au alloys: Schottky contacts Interface sharpness and integrity: avoiding interfacial phases . 8. 4. 5. SiC.Outstanding Issues in Growth of LED: 30 lum/watt to 500 lum/watt (Theor. 7. 3.

of Vacuum (Pressure) (Torr) Atmospheric Low Medium High UltraHigh 760 1 10-3 10-6 10-10 Mean Free Path (m) 7 x 10-8 5 x 10-5 5 x 10-2 50 5 x 105 Time / ML (s) 10-9 10-6 10-3 1 104 .Study surfaces: Need for Ultra high vacuum Surface sensitive probes Deg.

Z=nNAP √(8RT / π m) R=gas const.NEED FOR ULTRA-HIGH VACUUM From Kinetic Theory of Gases: Molecular Flux: Z = Nc/4V Hertz-Knudsen equation N/V =Mol per unit vol. Speed of molecules For a gas of Mol Wt M at temp T c = √(8RT / π m) Since PV= nRT and N=nNA.635 x 1024 P / √(MT) collisions m-2 s-1 .. c is av. or Z=NAP / √(2π MRT) For Pressure in Pa (Nm-2) and M (g mol-1) Z= 2.

Calculating of effective pumping speed P1: pressure at the inlet of the pipe S1: pumping speed at the inlet of pipe C: conductance of the pipes P2: pressure at the inlet of the pump S2: pumping speed at the inlet of the pump Continuum of gas throughput Q = P1S1 = P2S2 Q = C(P1-P2) C: conductance of the pipe P2 = P1C/(S2 +C) S1 = S2 C/(S2 +C) If C >> S2 S1=S2 If C = S2 S1=1/2S2 .

Pumping Equation .


Obtaining UHV Roughing Sorption Turbo_Rotary Diaphragm UHV Sputter Ion Diffusion Cryopump Titanium Sublimation .

VACUUM PUMPING METHODS VACUUM PUMPS (METHODS) Gas Transfer Vacuum Pump Positive Displacement Vacuum Pump Reciprocating Displacement Pump Diaphragm Pump Piston Pump Multiple Vane Rotary Pump Rotary Pump Drag Pump Gaseous Ring Pump Turbine Pump Axial Flow Pump Radial Flow Pump Molecular Drag Pump Turbomolecular Pump Kinetic Vacuum Pump Fluid Entrainment Pump Ejector Pump Liquid Jet Pump Gas Jet Pump Vapor Jet Pump Diffusion Pump Diffusion Ejector Pump Ion Transfer Pump Bulk Getter Pump Getter Ion Pump Self Purifying Diffusion Pump Fractionating Diffusion Pump Entrapment Vacuum Pump Adsorption Pump Cold Trap Getter Pump Sublimation Pump Evaporation Ion Pump Sputter Ion Pump Cryopump Liquid Ring Pump Rotary Piston Pump Sliding Vane Rotary Pump Rotary Plunger Pump Dry Pump Roots Pump Condenser .

Rotary Vane. Oil-Sealed Mechanical Pump Pump Mechanism How the Pump Works .


Sorption Pump Vapour Pressure .

Oil Diffusion Pump .


LN2 reservoir with baffles Gas Approximate Vapor Pressure (mbar) 10-22 500 10 -7 >760 >760 >760 350 >760 760 <10 -10 Water (H2O) Argon (A) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Helium (He) Hydrogen (H2) Oxygen (O2) Neon (Ne) Nitrogen (N2) Solvents .

Constant Q (Overload) 4. Mechanical Pump Effect 3 4 Pumping Speed (Air) 10-10 10--3 Inlet Pressure (Torr) 10--1 .DP Pumping Speed 1 2 Critical Point 1. Constant Speed 3. Compression Ratio Limit 2.


Sputter Ion Pumps: .


Cryo Pumps: .

Measuring UHV: Penning Ion Gauge Bayer-Alpert Gauge (Nude) Spinning Rotor Gauge .

Ion Gauge Cold Cathode Gauge Residual Gas Analyzer McLeod Gauge Spinning Rotor Gauge 10-12 10-10 10-8 10-6 10-4 P (mbar) 10-2 1 10+2 .Gauges Gauge Operating Ranges Ultra High Vacuum High Vacuum Rough Vacuum Bourdon Gauge Capacitance Manometer Thermocouple Gauge Pirani Gauge Hot Fil.

Thermocouple Gauge How the gauge works .

Ionization gauges .


Problems that appear to be Leaks Diffusion Permeation Real Leaks Outgassing Virtual Backstreaming .


How the RGA works .


UHV Materials: Degassing properties Machinability Bakability Permeability Transfer mechanisms (Bellows) .





The effective pumping speed never exceeds the value of the minimum conductance (or pumping speed) of the individual parts that are stacked together. would the EPS be higher or lower than 500L/sec? Answer . and even some old-timers.No. the effective pumping speed cannot exceed 10L/sec even if a 2. •A 500L/s pump is connected to the chamber by a 500L/sec port. Now. when the pumping speed and conductance are of equal value. the effective pumping speed is half the quoted pumping speed. what is the EPS? Answer . let us set some limits intuitively: A 500L/s pump is connected to the chamber by some magical 'infinite' conductance port.Lower.EPS is 1000 L/sec.vacuum doesn't suck! . Indeed. while adding them in parallel increases the pumping speed. For example.000L/sec pump is attached to it! (Remember . we find 1/EPS = 1/500 + 1/500 1/EPS = 2/500 1/EPS = 1/250 •EPS = 250 liter per sec That is. 'infinite' conductance ports.95 •EPS = <10 liter per sec Conclusions One critical fact should be extracted from this segment. what if we put an LN2 trap with 500L/sec conductance between the port and pump? •1/EPS = 1/500 + 1/500 + 1/500 1/EPS = 3/500 1/EPS = 1/167 •EPS = 167 liter per sec •Clearly. Before calculating. are surprised by this number. using the quoted PS as the effective PS will cause serious errors in estimating base pressure and pump down time. To calculate series connection of chamber and pump noted above: •1/EPS = 1/PS + 1/C •Substituting the numbers from our initial example. Adding other components only worsens the problem. we will take the ridiculous situation and connect a 2000L/sec pump to a chamber by a tube with 10L/sec conductance and calculate the EPS. Newcomers to vacuum technology. This sounds identical to the series/parallel connections of electrical capacitances. would the pump's pumping speed be affected? Answer . what is the effective pumping speed (EPS) from the chamber. 1/EPS = 1/2000 + 1/10 1/EPS = 201/2000 1/EPS = 1/9. Expressed differently.Effective Pumping Speed •If we attach a 500 L/s pump to a chamber with a 500 L/s conductance port. if one component in the stack has a 10L/sec conductance. •This indicates that adding pumping speed and conductance in series lowers the overall pumping speed.000. EPS is 500 L/s •Two 500L/s pumps are connected to the same chamber by separate. pumping speeds (PS) and conductances (C) are added to give effective pumping speed (EPS) using exactly the same mathematic form as capacitances.

assuming ideal gas and sticking coefficient of 1. H2. time for surface contamination and mean free path lengths for He. .Assignment 1: Plot the relationship between gas pressure (x-axis). N2 and Ar.

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