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HOUSEKEEPING

• Tip: try not to fall too far behind each


week with the readings, case studies
and assessments. It will only get more
difficult if you do not set aside the time
to catch up before the mid-term on
March 25, 2019.
• You should have completed 6
leadership assessments through today.
• You should be in a group and have
chosen a company for your group.
Discuss next steps.
• I have uploaded the Big 5 Personality
test to Week 4 on Blackboard. Similar
to DISC, this is good to take to gain
more insight into your personality. If
someone wants to automate the
template, feel free to do so and share
w/class.
• Take a part of your Spring Break to
catch up if necessary. If you need
guidance in catching up, let me know.
W. W. Wilson, MBA 670
ORGANIZATION OVERVIEW –
UNIT OF ANALYSIS
 Organization Culture (Chapter 16)
 Human Resources Policies and Practices (Chapter 17)
 Organizational Change and Stress Management (Chapter 18)

Leadership Style

 Diversity (Chapter 2)  Foundations of Group Behavior (Chapter 9)


 Attitudes & Job Satisfaction (Chapter 3)  Understanding Work Teams (Chapter 10)
 Emotions and Moods (Chapter 4)  Communication (Chapter 11)
 Personality and Values (Chapter 5)  Leadership (Chapter 12)
 Perception and Individual Decision Making (Chapter 6)  Power and Politics (Chapter 13)
 Motivation (Chapters 7 & 8)  Conflict and Negotiation (Chapters 14)
 Foundations of Organization Structure (Chapters 15)
W. W. Wilson, MBA 670
EMOTIONS AND MOODS
Chapter 4

Lubin School of Business, Pace University W. W. Wilson MBA 670


EMOTIONS AND RELATION TO “ABC
OF PSYCHOLOGY”
• We are multidimensional beings.
• Mindfulness and self-regulation allow us to bring our best self to work.
• Our self is comprised of Affect, Behavior (conative) and Cognition.
• Affect is controlled by emotion regulation and mindfulness.
• Behavior is controlled by self-regulation and good judgment.
• Cognition is controlled by training/education (e.g., MBA 670) which allows us to
develop knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) to match organizations’ tasks,
duties, and responsibilities (TDRs).
• Today we will focus on Affect (i.e., emotions and moods).
• Many of the theories explored in Chapter 4 are from psychology.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


AFFECT = EMOTIONS, MOODS
• Affect is an umbrella concept that primarily encompasses both emotions and
moods, but it can also encompass dispositions (tendencies).
• Affect represents a broad range of automatic feelings that people experience.
• Example, affect embodies uncontrolled feelings in which we experience a
natural arousal of repulsion or attraction to people, places, and things.
• Affect can be further broken down into state affect versus trait affect.
• State affect refers to momentary emotions that might be unrelated to our
behavior or to performing a task. Example, a passing mood in which a person
only feels a certain way because of a momentary situation or for no reason.
• Trait affect refers to longer-lasting emotional dispositions. Example, a person
generally tends to feel a certain way or be in a certain mood.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


SOURCES OF EMOTIONS AND MOODS

• Emotion-free workplace is a myth. Organizations are replete with emotions


and moods because just about anything can trigger our emotion or moods.
• Hawthorne experiment – changing lighting temporarily influenced
performance.
• Similar changes, such as changing work stations, maintaining clean work space
or floors, can result in short-lived increase in productivity.
• Ripple effect - studies show that emotions and moods are contagious and can
affect group performance (positive or negative depending on the emotion or
mood).
• Affective events theory (AET) – A model suggesting that workplace events
cause emotional reactions on the part of employees, which then influence
workplace attitudes, behaviors and job satisfaction.
⁻ Example, downsizing, restructuring. You worry you will lose your job
• Sources that have positive or negative effect on emotions and mood:
⁻ Personality, Time of day, Day of week
⁻ Weather, Stress, Social activities
⁻ Sleep, Exercise, Age, Gender
W. W. Wilson, MBA 670
EMOTIONS & MOODS IN OB
• Emotions and moods are relevant to the study of OB because they are
unavoidable in the workplace and greatly influence our:
⁻ Attitudes towards others, ourselves, our jobs (including job satisfaction)
⁻ Decision making
⁻ Work behaviors and job outcomes
• Emotions provide us with valuable information that helps our thinking process.
• Nonetheless, emotions and mood are recent additions to the study of OB
because strong negative emotions, such as anger, have been historically
perceived as negative to workplace performance.
• Emotions, exhibited at the wrong time, can negatively impact performance.
• Emotions mean different things in different contexts and vary across cultures.
• Emotions cannot be understood by merely looking at facial expressions.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


AFFECT HEURISTIC (KAHNEMAN)
• Affect heuristic (Daniel Kahneman): Every stimulus evokes affective reaction
which is not always conscious and can be used in cognitive evaluations.
• Wikpedia: Affect heuristic is a mental shortcut (subconscious process) that allows
people to make decisions/solve problems quickly and efficiently (without
extensive search for information).
• Affect has been used to make critical decisions such as cost-benefit analysis, safe
concentration of chemicals, industry economic performance.
• Affect has been used to make venture capital investment decisions, although
managers are reluctant to say they relied on “gut feelings” or emotion. Article on
“In-use versus “espoused” decision making for Venture Capitalists.
• This automatic affective valuation—the emotional core of an attitude—is the
main determinant of many judgments and behaviors.
• Emotions like fear, pleasure, and surprise, influence decisions/play a lead role.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


AFFECT HEURISTIC (KAHNEMAN)
CONT’D
• Emotions are shorter in duration than a mood, occurring rapidly and involuntarily
in response to a stimulus. Reading "lung cancer" generates a feeling of dread.
Reading "mother's love" generates a feeling of affection and comfort.
• Affect heuristic is used while judging the risks and benefits of something,
depending on the positive or negative feelings we associate with a stimulus.
• It is the equivalent of "going with our gut".
• If our feelings towards an activity are positive, then we are more likely to judge
the risks as low and the benefits high.
• On the other hand, if our feelings towards an activity are negative, we are likely
to perceive risks as high and benefits low.
• Bottomline: Affect can impact how employees experience their jobs, how they
interact in teams, their job satisfaction, performance, and commitment.
• We pick up on affect in organizations based on our “emotional intelligence” level.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
 Emotional
intelligence (EI)- The
ability to detect and
to manage
emotional cues and
information.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


LEADERS & EMOTIONS MANAGEMENT
• Affect - A broad range of feelings
that people experience.
• Emotions - Intense feelings that are
directed at someone or something.
• Moods - Feelings that tend to be
less intense than emotions and that
lack a contextual stimulus.
• Moral emotions - Emotions that
have moral implications, e.g.,
judgment and “moral disgust” about
injustice and unethical behavior OR
sympathy for the suffering of others.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


KEY DEFINITIONS IN CHAPTER 4
• Emotional labor - A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally
desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work. There are
downsides to trying to change the way you feel; talking self out of fear can
make you more afraid.
• Felt emotions - An individual’s actual emotions.
• Displayed emotions - Emotions that are organizationally required and
considered appropriate in a given job.
• Surface acting - Hiding one’s inner feelings and forgoing emotional expressions
in response to display rules.
• Deep acting - Trying to modify one’s true inner feelings based on display rules.
• Emotional dissonance – Inconsistencies between the emotions people feel and
the emotions they project.
• Mindfulness - Objectively and deliberately evaluating the emotional situation in
the moment. W. W. Wilson, MBA 670
EMOTION REGULATION
• Mindfulness
• Cognitive reappraisal
• Deep acting
• Surface acting
• Emotional suppression
• Ethical implications:
• Some say, controlling our emotions might be deemed unethical because it
requires a degree of acting.
• Others say, emotions should be controlled so that you can take a
dispassionate perspective. Research: Acting happy might make you happy.
• Key question: Are you suppressing your emotions to avoid acting
inappropriately or to avoid letting others know what you are thinking?

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


OB APPLICATIONS OF EMOTIONS AND MOOD
• The selection process – match EI to job requirements. Also, disposition or trait affect.
• Decision making – positive emotions have positive impact on decision making
• Creativity – positively influenced by emotions/moods. Bad moods tend to be more creative.
• Motivation – positive mood result in higher expectation of solving problems, greater effort
to solve them, and actual results in solving them.
• Leadership – leaders who focus on inspirational goals generate greater optimism,
cooperation and enthusiasm, leading to positive social interactions with coworkers and
customers.
• Negotiation – enhanced by negative emotion (combined with information and power).
• Customer service – enhanced by positive emotion (via emotion contagion).
• Work-life satisfaction – positive work mood spills over at home and vice versa.
• Deviant/counterproductive workplace behavior (CWBs) – enhanced by negative emotions.
• Work safety/injury – negative emotions/moods can lead to > injury doing hazardous jobs.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


LEADERS & EMOTIONS MANAGEMENT
 Positive affect - A mood dimension that
consists of specific positive emotions
such as excitement, enthusiasm, and
elation at the high end.
 Negative affect - A mood dimension
that consists of emotions such as
nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the
high end.
 Positivity offset - The tendency of most
individuals to experience a mildly
positive mood at zero input (when
nothing in particular is going on)

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


CORE AFFECT (BARRETT ET AL., 2006)
• There are dozens of emotions and moods but
researchers focus on “core affect”.
• Aristotle – There are 14 emotions: fear
confidence, anger, friendship, calm, enmity,
shame, shamelessness, pity, kindness, envy,
indignation, emulation, and contempt
• Robert Plutchick’s Wheel of Emotions (8 items):
joy, sadness, trust, disgust, fear, anger, surprise
and anticipation
• 6 “Universal Emotions”: happiness, sadness,
surprise, fear, anger, and disgust. He later
added contempt
• 4 “Basic Emotions” – fear and surprise engage
the same muscles and are variations of the
same emotion; disgust and anger use the same
muscle.
W. W. Wilson, MBA 670
CORE AFFECT (BARRETT ET AL., 2006)
Affect Emotion Mood Disposition
Affect type Arousal - natural Affective reaction Affective state Affective tendency
attraction; natural
repulsion
Affect type Primarily via Strong affective reaction Mild, diffusive affective state Persistent / general
manifestation emotion, moods. affective tendency
Can be disposition Directed to specific object Not directed to specific
or cause object or cause
Internal / Internal / External - social display Medium-term / temporary Long-term / permanent trait
External unconscious (genuine / contrived)
Valence Positive / negative / Positive / negative / Positive / negative / Positive / negative
ambivalent ambivalent ambivalent High / low affectivity
Good / bad / neutral
Duration Continual Short-term Medium-term / temporary Long-term / permanent trait
Example Internal arousal Anger, fear anxious, depressive, irritable Extraversion (high positive
response to bad affectivity)
scent, loud music neuroticism (high negative
affectivity)
Cause Response to Response to affective Lack of sleep, nutrition, facial
affective stimuli stimuli expression (mood disorders;
depression; chronic stress; bi-
polar disorders) W. W. Wilson, MBA 670
Some research on
emotions and moods

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


HAPPIER AND SMARTER VS. SADDER BUT
WISER HYPOTHESIS (STAW & BARSADE, 1993)
• These researchers tested the “happier-and-smarter as opposed to the
sadder-but-wiser hypothesis”.
• They found that managerial decision making is facilitated or improved
by positive affect.
• Thus, the results support the happier-and-smarter as opposed to the
sadder-but-wiser hypothesis, since they show positive relationships
between dispositional affect and performance.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


WHICH COMES FIRST (LAZARUS, 1991)

• There is an ongoing discussion in academia about which comes first?


Cognition or emotion.
• Lazarus argues that emotion does not lie at the end of a computer-like
seriatim process.
• They are fused. Cannot have one without the other.
• We have somatic responses (body) so cognition cannot control affect.
• The fused components are thoughts, action impulses and somatic
disturbances.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


AFFECT IN THE WORKPLACE
(BRIEF, A. P., & WEISS, H. M. (2002).
• Reconciles “affect as cause” and “affect as an indicator” approaches about job
satisfaction.
• Affect as a cause (affective event theory) – job satisfaction is an evaluative
judgment and affect at work is an antecedent to it.
• Affect as an indicator: job satisfaction is deemed to have an affective
component.
• Moods and emotions are produced at work due to exogenous factors; stressful
events/conditions; leaders affect contagion; work group characteristics;
physical setting; rewards/ punishment.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


AFFECT IN THE WORKPLACE
(BRIEF, A. P., & WEISS, H. M. (2002) – CONT’D.
• Job satisfaction is also influenced by “affective dispositions” (i.e., personality
traits/ temperaments).
• Neuroticism (negative affectivity [NA]; extraversion (positive affectivity (PA] ) –
Big Five Personality model.
• High NA’s are prone to experience a negative moods and High PA’s are prone to
experience positive moods.
• Distinction between affect-driven versus judgment driven behavior at work
(cognitive versus emotion).
• Performance consequence of affect at work:
⁻ Can impact creativity, goal persistence, and helping behavior.
⁻ Research on outcomes of affective states have been limited (need broader
scope, process orientation, organizational context).

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


MAX WEBER – IRON CAGE
• Max Weber's "Iron Cage": the stark destination of factory workers who,
under the efficient but sterile management process of bureaucratization,
have become automatons or robots.
• In other words, factory workers became "role occupants" (Weber 1916)
instead of differentiated individuals with personalities and their own
minds - human isomorphism of sorts.
• In revisiting this Iron Cage concept, DiMaggio/Powell (1983) argue that it
has now extended to the profession and the state through three
isomorphic forces: coercive; mimetic; and normative.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


RIDING THE TIDE OF EMOTIONS WITH
MINDFULNESS (KENG & TONG, 2016)
• “Mindfulness is the awareness that arises through “paying attention in a particular
way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”. Mindfulness [is]
theoretically and empirically associated with psychological well-being.
• “Affect variability - within-person variation or standard deviation of affect over
time. Affect variability captures the range of levels within which affect varies over
a certain period, and may be unrelated to average affect during the same period”.
• “Affect instability reflects how rapidly affect fluctuates between successive time-
points. It differs from affect variability; affect can fluctuate rapidly or slowly”.
• Affect inertia - to the extent to which affect persists from one point to the next.
• Affect switch refers to the ease with which negative (or positive) affect changes to
positive (negative) affect.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


CONTAGION OF EMOTIONS & MOODS
(BARSADE, 2002)
• There will be contagion of mood among group members.
• Unpleasant emotions more likely to lead to mood contagion than pleasant ones.
The same emotional valence (pleasant or unpleasant) expressed with high energy
will lead to more contagion than if expressed with low energy.
• Positive emotional contagion, that is, an increase in positive mood, will lead to
greater cooperativeness on both an individual and group level.
• Positive emotional contagion (increase in +ve mood) leads to less group conflict.
• Positive emotional contagion (increase in +ve mood) leads people to rate their
own task performance and that of others in the group more highly.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


MODEL OF EMOTIONAL CONTAGION
(BARSADE, 2002)

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


LEADERS & EMOTIONS MANAGEMENT
• Knowing that emotions and moods are contagious, leaders must create
workplace environments that accentuate the beneficial effects of positive
emotions and moods while eliminating the deleterious effects of negative
emotions and moods.
• In other words, leaders’ tone at the top can be a trigger for the contagion of
positive or negative emotions and moods.
• QUESTION: In the Tesla case
⁻ What were the sources of positive or negative emotions and moods?
⁻ Who were the dominant sources of these emotions? Employees, leaders,
customers?

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670


IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERS
• Recognize that emotions are a natural part of the workplace and good
management does not mean creating an emotion-free environment.
• To foster effective decision making, creativity, and motivation in employees,
model positive emotions and moods as much as is authentically possible.
• Provide positive feedback to increase the positivity of employees. Of course, it
also helps to hire people who are predisposed to positive moods.
• In the service sector, encourage positive displays of emotion, which make
customers feel more positive and thus improve customer service interactions and
negotiations.
• Understand the role of emotions and moods to significantly improve your ability
to explain and predict your coworkers’ and others’ behavior.

W. W. Wilson, MBA 670