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Persoalan Tegangan Listrik

Electrical Network
Production Transmission Distribution Users

 LV

HV MV

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3 Phases System

U31
V3

U23
V1

V2
U12
U =V 3

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Electrical Disturbances
low frequency, conducted

• Voltage variations
• Voltage Dips
• Amplitude • Interruptions
• Voltage Swells
• Wave Shape
• Flicker
• Frequency • Harmonics
• Symmetry • Inter harmonics
• Transients
• Frequency
• Unbalance

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Voltage Variations

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Voltage Dips
u
 Ueff
100 %Un
90 ΔU = 30%
(depth)
70
t

ΔT = 112ms U
(durée) (amplitude)

t (ms)

0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280

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Interruptions
u
 Ueff
100 %Un

ΔT = 83ms

t (duration)

1
t (ms)

0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280

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Dips, Swells and
Interruptions

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Flicker

8,8Hz

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Flicker
10
V
V 3% / 0,757

0,29% / 1052

Nombre de variations par minute


0,1 1 10 100 1000

Pst = 1 , cas des variations rectangulaires

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Harmonics

+
= =
+ 1 3 5 n

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Harmonics

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Transients

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Unbalance

U1 vIE IE
ZA
2vIE IE
vIE

U2 TU U
UM
G
= SA
SK
(1-Phase-Load)
U3 =

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Frequency Variation

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Disturbances
Dips, Swell,
Interruptions Flicker

Harmonics Transients

Frequency
Unbalance Variation

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Parameters
Parameters
Urms LV

Value
230V / 400V
Limits
+10% / -10%
Urms MV 20kV +7% / -7%
Frequency 50 Hz +2% / -2%
Wave shape Sinusoidal THD < 8% en BTA
Symmetry U U1=U2=U3 2%

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Overview about the Power Quality

How to measure
IEC 61000-4-30
Testing and measurement techniques – Power Quality measurement methods

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Measurement techniques

Continuity / Change
Permanent / Trigger

Permanent average values recording



Triggered values recording
Events / Trend
FFT X²
8
A/D 
256 s/c
16-Bit
T

A/D FIFO
(4)
1 MHz 12-Bit T Transient

X
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Measurement methods

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Event recording
Acquisition Treatment Characterization

Measure
Detection Evaluation Classification

Analyze
Archive
Recording

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Voltage Dip / Swell (5.4)
Voltage Interruption (5.5)

• Derived from ½ cycles
(3.22 1cycle refreshed each 1/2cycle, 20msec)

• Reference is either Udin (LV) or


sliding voltage (MV, HV)

• ½ cycles must be synchronised on reference channel

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Long term recording

Time aggregation
•10/12 cycle (200msec) at 50/60Hz, 150/180 cycles (3sec) at
50/60Hz, interval time varies with actual frequency
• 10min, 2h interval sync to clock (including defined algorithm
from cycle to time aggr.)
• Aggregations are performed using the square root of arithmetic
mean of squared input
• All are non-gapping, 150/180 aggregated out of 15x10/12; 2h out
of 12x10min

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Time aggregation (4.4/4.5)
• 10/12 cycle (200msec) at 50/60Hz, interval time varies
with actual frequency
• 150/180 cycles (3sec) at 50/60Hz, interval time varies
with actual frequency
• 10min interval sync to clock (including defined
algorithm from cycle to time aggr.)
• 2h interval sync to clock (including defined algorithm
from cycle to time aggr.)
• Aggregations are performed using the square root of
arithmetic mean of squared input
• All are non-gapping, 150/180 aggregated out of
15x10/12; 2h out of 12x10min

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Time aggregation (4.4/4.5)
Zero Crossing of Fundamental (filtered)
10

150

Synchronised Clock ±20msec


10min

2h

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Time Clock Uncertainty (4.6)

• For Timestamp of Events and


• Synchronisation of the 10min and 2h interval

• Accuracy of timestamp: ±20/16,7msec at 50/60Hz

(Realisation with e.g.: GPS or DCF 77 sync)

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Flagging (4.7)

• Only one event extracted out of different events


(dip, swell and interruption influences also frequency,
flicker…)

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Power Frequency (5.1)

• Obtained every 10sec from the reference channel

• Synchronise the sampling frequency of the system


no fix sampling frequency 'possible' (e.g.: PLL)

• Accuracy of power frequency measurement ±0,01Hz

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Accuracy for voltage (5.2)

• Accuracy without accessory: ± 0,1% of Udin


(Udin declared input voltage)

• (same for current, but today only recommended)

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Flicker (5.3)

Flicker algorithm according to IEC 61000-4-15

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Supply Voltage Unbalance (5.7)

• out of 10/12 cycle


positive and either negative or zero sequence

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Voltage Harmonics (5.8)
Voltage Interharmonics (5.9)
• Harmonics according new IEC 61000-4-7 Subgroups!
(2002 class1, out of 10/12cyclel with 10 bins)

• Interharmonics acc. new IEC 61000-4-7 Subgroups!


(2002 class1, out of 10/12cycles)

• Gapless (every 10/12 cycles a new set of data)

• Accuracy Class I of IEC61000-4-7


(bandwidth with accuracy 2,5/3kHz 50th harmonic
low ripple)

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Voltage Harmonics (5.8)
Voltage Interharmonics (5.9)
harmonic interharmonic
subgroup n+1 subgroup n+2,5

YES 
DFT output
harmonic
order n n+1 n+2 n+3

harmonic interharmonic
S group n+1 group n+2,5

NO 
harmonic DFT output
order n n+1 n+2 n+3

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5.10 Mains Signalling Voltage


• either derived from 10/12 cycle or
• interharmonic bin all below 3kHz

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Where to measure

Compliance / Trouble
shouting

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Transient
User
Network
Swells

Flicker
Dips
Instantaneous Momentary Temporary Long
Interruptions
Duration
Duration

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Measuring point

Statistics / Diagnostic
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Multi-sites monitoring

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Multi-sites monitoring

A lot of data :
• To transmit
• To analyze

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Embedded analysis

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How to analyze
Overview / Details

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Overview

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Overview

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Trends
Diag ramme tem por el
2 50

2 00

1 50

Volts
1 00

50

A V rm s

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DEMO
15

10

A VPlt

2 6/0 1 /2 0 0 6 2 8/0 1 /2 0 0 6 3 0/0 1 /2 0 0 6 0 1/0 2 /2 0 0 6 0 3/0 2 /2 0 0 6 0 5/0 2 /2 0 0 6


T hu rsda y S atu rda y M on d ay Wed n esd ay Frid a y S un d ay

Evénément #109 le 24/01/2006 18:27:16,080


A Vrms Creux ins tantané

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Trends

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Overview

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Events

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Classification

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Details

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Key points

 To measure ALL the parameters at the same time
through differential inputs
 To measure according IEC 61000-4-30 class A
 Adapted trigger mode
 Easy to configure
 Automatic overview

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Complete solution

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Solution : DRANETZ BMI
Power Network Monitoring

Power Quality Power Quality Sporadic Permanent


Compliance Analysis Disturbance Disturbance

Voltages Only Voltages + Currents Long Term Monitoring Short Term Monitoring

Key Account Strategic Point

FIXED MONITORING MOBILE INSTRUMENTS

Digital RMS Waveform Waveform


Transient
Signals Only + RMS + RMS

Power Xplorer Power Guide


ENCORE SERIES PX5 4400
Power Visa

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Selection
Power Network Monitoring
IEC 61000-4-30
Class A
Good Quality ?  Sporadic
Disturbance
Permanent
Disturbance

Preventive
Maintenance Predictive
Maintenance

Voltages +
Voltages RMS Power Quality Voltages + Currents
(only)
Currents Trouble Shooting Waveform
RMS Analysis

Power Quality Strategic


Trend recording Point
Compliance
Multi-points

Exchange
Low Speed Events High Speed Events
Point Statistics recording recording
EN50160

Power Visa

Instrument
Mobile
DranView
Short Term Monitoring

Power Guide 4400 Diagnostic

Long Term Monitoring


Power Xplorer PX5

Installed
Solution

Fixed
Permanent Monitoring ENCORE SERIES

Reporting Digital Signals Analysis / Statistics RMS Waveform Alarms Transient


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