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• Following are the methods of defalcation involving misappropriation of cash or goods
1. By misappropriating the receipt by not recording the same in the cashbook
2. By destroying the carbon copy or counter foil of the receipt and
misappropriating the cash received
3. By entering lesser amount on the counterfoil and misappropriating the
difference between money actually-received and the amount entered on the
counterfoil of the receipt book
4. By not recording the receipt of sale of a casual nature for example sale of scrap,
sale of old newspapers etc.
5. By omitting to record cash donations received by non-profit making charitable
6. By misappropriating the cash received on discounting the bills receivable and showing
them as bills outstanding on hand.
7. By misappropriating cash received from debtors and concealing the same by giving
artificial credit to the debtors in the form of bad debts, discount or sales return etc.
8. By adopting the method of "teeming and lading" or "lapping process". Under this
method cash received from one debtor is misappropriated and deficiency in that
debtors account is made good when another payment is received from second debtor
by crediting the second debtors account less by that amount. This process is carried
out round the year.
9. By suppressing the cash sales by not recording them or by treating the cash sales as
credit sales.
10. By misappropriating the sale proceeds of VPP sales or sales of goods on approval basis
by treating the transaction as goods received or not approved.
11. By under casting receipt side total of the cashbook
12. By recording fictitious or bogus payments
13. By recording more payments than actual amounts paid by altering the figures on the
14. By showing the same payment twice.
15. By showing credit purchases as cash purchases and misappropriating the amount
16. Recording personal expenses as business expenses
17. By not recording discounts and allowances given by the creditors and misappropriating
the amounts
18. By overcasting the payment side total of the cashbook
19. Recording fictitious and inflated purchases and misappropriating that amount.
20. By suppressing the credit notes for returns and showing the full payment to creditors.
21. By including the names of dummy workers or the workers who have? The job in the
wage sheets and misappropriating the amount.
22. By over casting the total of wages sheets and drawing that amount for misappropriation.
23. 23 By misappropriating the undisbursed wages.

• It implies presentation of accounts more favourably than what they actually are.
Window dressing means showing a wrong picture.
• Fraud through manipulation of accounts is also known as window dressing because
accounts are manipulated to show a wrong picture of the profit or loss of the business
and its financial state of affairs.
• Generally this type of fraud is committed by the people at the top management level.
This does not involve any misappropriation of cash or goods but it is either over
statement of profit or understatement of the same.
• Such fraud is committed with certain objectives and is relatively difficult to detect.
1. When vouchers, invoices, cheques, contracts are missing etc.
2. When control account does not agree with subsidiary books.
3. When the difference in trial balance is difficult to locate.
4. When there are greater fluctuation in G.P. and N.P. ratios.
5. When there is difference between the balance and the confirmation of the
balance by the parties.
6. When there is difference between the stock as per records and the stock
physically counted.
7. When the explanation given by the client is not satisfactory.
8. When there is a overwriting of some figures.
9. When there is a contradiction in the explanation given by different parties.

• Following procedures may be adopted by the auditor to detect the errors.

1. Check the opening balances from the balance sheet of the last year.
2. Check the posting into respective ledger accounts
3. Check the total of the subsidiary books.
4. Verify all the castings and the carry forwards.
5. Ensure that the list of debtors and creditors tally with the ledger
6. Make sure that all accounts from the ledger are taken into accounts.
7. Verify the total of the trial balance.
8. Compare the various items from the trial balance with that of the
previous year.
9. Find out the amount of difference and see whether an item of half or
such amount is entered wrongly.
10. Check differences involving round figures as Tk. 1,000; Tk. 100 etc .
11. See where there is misplacement or transposition of figures that is 45
for 54; or 81 for 18 etc.
12. Ultimately careful scrutiny is the only remedy for detection of errors.
13. See that no entry of the original book has remained unposted.
1. Examine all aspects of the finance.
2. Vouch all the receipts from the counterfoils or carbon copies or cash memos,
sales mart reports etc.
3. Check thoroughly the salary and wages register.
4. Verify the methods of valuation of stocks.
5. Check up stock register, goods inwards notes, goods out wards books and
delivery challans etc.
6. Calculate various ratios in order to detect fraudulent manipulation of accounts
7. Go through the details of unusual items.
8. Probe into the details of the problems when there is a suspicion.
9. Exercise reasonable skill and care while performing the duty.
10. Make surprise visit to check the accounts.

• It is mandatory for public companies to have statutory financial statements

audited. Business stakeholders have embraced auditing. So let us look at the
advantages of having financial statements audited and the disadvantages.
• Advantages of Audit
1. Audited accounts are readily accepted by Government authorities like Tax
authorities and Central banks.
2. By auditing accounts, Errors and frauds can be detected and rectified in time.
3. Audited accounts carry greater authority than the accounts which have not
been audited.
4. For accessing finance from financial institutions like Banks, previous years
audited accounts are evaluated for determining repayment capability.
5. Regular audit creates fear among employees in the accounts department and
have moral influence on staff thereby restraining them from committing
frauds and errors.
6. Audited accounts facilitate settlement of claims on the retirement/death of a
7. In the event of loss of property by fire or on happening of the event insured
against, audited accounts help in settlement of claims from insurance
8. Where ownership is separated from management, auditing reassures
shareholders that the accounts have been properly maintained, funds are
utilized for the right purpose and the management have not taken any undue
advantage of their position.
9. To determine the value of the business in the event of purchase or sales of
the business, audited account will be the treated as the base for the
10. Audit of accounts by a qualified auditor also helps management to understand
the financial position of the business and to take decision on various matters
relating to internal control system of the organization or setting up of an
internal audit department etc.
11. If the accounts are audited by an independent person, disputes between the
management and labor unions on payment of bonus and higher wages can be
settled amicably.
12. In the event of admission of a new partner, audited accounts will facilitate the
formation of terms and conditions for joining the new partner. Previous years
audited accounts will give a general idea about the growth and financial
position of the business to the new partner.
Disadvantages of Audit
1. The payment of audit fees brings extra cost burden to the organization.
2. During an audit, the auditor requires the attention of several company
staff and therefore causes disruption.

Limitations of Audit
1. An audit does not assure future viability of the organization audited
2. An audit does not assure the effectiveness and efficiency of management.
3. Auditors express opinion and therefore does not give total assurance of
the true and fair presentation of annual reports.
• An audit of accounts by an independent expert assures the outside users that
the accounts are proper and reliable. Outsiders can rely on the accounts if the
auditor reports that the accounts are true and fair.
• The accounts are said to be true and fair:
1. When the profit and loss shown in the profit and loss account is
true and fair, and
2. When the value of assets and liabilities shown in the balance sheet
is true and fair.
• What constitutes true and fair is not defined under any law. General guidelines
in connection with true and fair:
a) Conforms to accounting principles
b) No window dressing or secret reserves
• In order to show a true and fair view, the auditor should ensure that:
The final accounts agree with the books of accounts.
The provision for depreciation is proper.
The closing stock is physically verified and valued properly.
Intangible assets like goodwill, patents, preliminary expenses or other deferred
revenue expenses are written off properly.
Proper provision is made for bad and doubtful debts.
Capital expenses is not treated as revenue expenses and vice versa.
Capital receipts are not treated as revenue receipts.
Effect of changes in rate of foreign exchange on value of assets and liabilities is
recorded in the books properly.
Contingent liabilities are not treated as actual liabilities and vice versa.
Provision is made for all known losses and liabilities
A reserve is not shown as a provision and vice versa
Cut off transactions are recorded properly, so that all sales invoices are matched
with goods delivered and all purchase invoices are matched with goods received.
Transactions are recorded on accrual basis, i.e. outstanding expenses, prepaid
expenses, income accrued and advance income are recorded properly.
Expected or anticipated gains are not credited to the profit and loss account.
Effect of events after the balance sheet date on the value of an asset and liability
is disclosed in the accounts properly
The exceptional or non-recurring transactions are disclosed separately in the
3. Discloses all material facts
4. Fulfils Legal requirements
• Companies Act 1994 Sec. 213 outlines the power and duties of the auditors. Let’s
have a look at it.
• (1) Every auditor of a company shall have a right of access at all times to the books
and accounts and vouchers of the company, whether kept at the head office of the
company or elsewhere and shall be entitled to require from the officers of the
company such information and explanation as the auditor may think necessary for the
performance of his duties as auditor.
• (2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the auditor shall, in
particular inquire into following namely:
a) Whether loans and advances made by the company on the basis of security have
been properly secured and whether the terms on which they have been made are
not prejudicial to the interests of the company or its members:
b) Whether transactions of the company which are represented merely as book-
entries are prejudicial to the interests of the company;
c) where the company is not an investment company or a banking company, whether
so much of the assets of the company as consist of shares, debentures and other
securities, have been sold at a price less than at which they were purchased by the
d) whether loans and advances made by the company have been shown as deposits;
e) whether personal expenses have been charged to revenue account;
f) where it is stated in the books and paper of the company that any shares have been
allotted for cash, whether cash has actually been received in respect of such
allotment, and if no cash has actually been so received, whether the position as
stated in the books and the balance sheet is correct, regular and not misleading.
(3) The auditor shall make a report to be presented in the annual general
meeting of the company on the accounts, examined by him, and on every
balance sheet and profit and loss account and on every other document
declared by this Act to be part of or annexed to the balance sheet or profit and
loss accounts which are laid before the company in general meeting during his
tenure of office and the report shall state whether, in his opinion and to the best
of his information and according to the explanation given to him, the said
accounts give the information required by this Act in the manner so required
and give a true and fair view-
a) in the case of the balance sheet, of the state of the company's affairs as at the
end of its financial year;
b) in the case of the profit and loss account, of the profit or loss for its financial
(4) The auditor’s report shall also state-
a) whether he has obtained all the information and explanation which to the
best of his knowledge and belief were necessary for the purposes of his
b) whether, in his opinion, proper books of account as required by law have
been kept by the company so far as appears from his examination of those
books and proper returns adequate for the purposes of his audit have been
received from branches not visited by him;
c) whether the company's balance sheet and profit and loss account dealt with
by the report are in agreement with the books of account and returns.
5) There any of the matters referred to in clauses(a) and (b) of sub- section (3) or in
clauses (a), (b) and (c) of sub-section (4) are answered in the negative or with a
qualification, the auditor’s report shall state the reason for the answer.
6) The Government may, be general or special order, direct that in the case of such class
or description of companies as may be specified in the order, the auditor’s report shall
also include a statement on such matters as may be specified therein.
7) The accounts of a company shall not be deemed as not having been and the auditor’s
report shall not state that those accounts have not been, properly drawn up on the
ground merely that the company has not disclosed certain matters, of-
a) those matters are such as the company is not required to disclose by virtue of any
provision contained in this Act or any other law for the time being in force; and
b) those provisions are specified in the balance sheet and loss account of the
• Qualification and Disqualification of Auditors (Sec. 212):
I. No persons shall be appointed as an auditor of any company unless he is a
"chartered accountant" within the meaning of the Bangladesh Chartered
Accountants Order, 1973, (P.O. No. 2 of 1973):
• Provided that a firm whereof all the partners practicing in Bangladesh are qualified for
appointment as aforesaid may be appointed by its firm name to be auditor of
company in which case any of the auditors so practicing may act in the name of the
II. None of the following persons shall be qualified for appointment as auditor of a
company namely-
a) an officer or employee of the company;
b) a person who is partner, or who is in the employment of an officer or employee of
the company;
c) a person who is indebted to the company for an amount exceeding one
thousand taka, or who had given any guarantee or provided any security in
connection with the indebtedness of any third person to the company for an
amount exceeding one thousand taka:
d) a person who is director or member of a partner company, or a partner of a
firm, which is the managing agent of the company;
e) a person who is a director, or the holder of shares exceeding five percent in
nominal value of the subscribed capital, of anybody corporate which is the
managing agent of the company.
• Provided that where any shares held by a person as nominee or trustee for
any third person and in which the holder has no beneficial interest such shares
shall be excluded in computing the extent of the subscribed capital for the
purpose of this clause.
3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as an auditor of a company,
a) he, according to sub-section (2), is disqualified for appointment as auditor
of any other body corporate which is that company's subsidiary or
holding company or a subsidiary of that company's holding company's;
b) he would be disqualified for such appointment, had the said body
corporate been a company.
4) If an auditor becomes subject, after his appointment to any of the
disqualification's specified in sub-section (2) and (3), he shall be deemed to
have vacated his office as such.
• Rights of Auditors
• The Companies Act gives some exclusive rights to the auditors. Some of the
rights are as follows:
1. Right of access to books of account and vouchers;
2. Right to receive information and explanations;
3. Right of access to books and papers of branch;
4. Right to receive notices of general meetings and to attend those meetings;
5. Right to make representation where another person is being appointed as
6. Right to apply to the Court for directions relating performance of the auditors’
7. Right to seek and use the opinion or services of experts and;
8. Right to provide other services for audit client.