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Basic Seismic Data Processing

- Seismic Acquisition
- Part Three
- Seismic Processing
- Part Four
- Seismic Processing
- Seismic Processing
- seismic interpretation
- Advanced Seismic Processing
- Seismic Processing 3
- Seismic Data Processing
- Part One
- Seismic Processing Report..
- ProMAX
- 3D Seismic Survey Design
- Seismic Processing Steps
- Introduction to seismic interpretation
- 2D and 3D Land Seismic Data Acquisition
- Basic AVO Theory
- promax reference
- Promax 2D Seismic Processing & Analysis

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deconvolution

getting to zero phase

amplitude balancing

Pre-stack migration

Depth migration

E-1

E. Seismic data processing - Generic processing flow

Amplitude balancing

Test migration

Test migration

Migration

Stack

Amplitude balancing

E-2

E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

Before

deconvolution

After

deconvolution

E-3

E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

Reflection coefficients

Deconvolved trace

E-4

E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

(Un-NMO Corrected Common Midpoint Gathers)

E-5

E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

Definitions

Spike deconvolution

The process of completely removing the wavelet and leaving the

reflection coefficient which is a “spike” in time. This can be viewed

as a destructive interference filter that “interferes” with the wavelet

when it is encountered.

* =

Gap deconvolution

This is a variant on the process of spike deconvolution but, it leaves

the wavelet alone within the width of the “gap” and destructively

interferes with unwanted noise that comes after the wavelet ie.

reverberations.

* =

Gap

E – 5a

E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

The problem with spike deconvolution is that it is notorious for boosting the noise

Wavelet

Noise Noise

Amplitude

Amplitude

Signal Signal

Frequency Frequency

the data deconvolution

E – 5b

E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

Definitions

Surface consistent deconvolution

With the trace to trace process of deconvolution as it is normally

applied, it is also adaptive to the noise on the trace giving the

possibility that the statistically derived wavelet is not the “true” signal

in the data. Surface consistent deconvolution derives a single

operator for each shot record and then one for each receiver record

to statistically average out the effect of trace to trace randomness.

The wavelet generated by the source is derived from a computer

modeling program and so is not statistically estimated from every

trace. An deconvolution operator is based on the model and

therefore is a stable inverse operator. For marine data, the model is

based on the number of guns, the gun size, the pressure, the gun

spacing and the water depth.

E – 5c

E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

E-6

E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

E-7

E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

Spherical spreading

increasing linearly with time:

V(t) = V0 + A t

1 2

Dist = V0 t + At

2

So to compensate for this, the

samples are multiplied by:

1 2

V0 t + At

2

E -8

E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

Transmission loss

T=1-R

loss is a two way transmission coefficient

T = (1 – R)(1 + R) = 1 – R 2

In general

T(total) = Rn (1 – Rn-1 )(1 – Rn-2 ) ------ (1 – R1)

E-9

E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

cycle is constant.

The measure of the loss per cycle is “Q”

If the loss per cycle is constant then the

higher frequencies are losing amplitude

faster than the low frequencies.

Shallow section

Wavelet

at 1.0 Sec.

Deep section

Amplitude

Wavelet

at 4.0 Sec.

Frequency

E - 10

E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

Mode conversion

Near Far

offset offset

Gather

Corrected for moveout

E -11

E. Seismic data processing - Gain balancing

Original trace

15 sample AGC

Gain curve

E - 12

E. Seismic data processing - Gain balancing

Original trace

Gain curve

E - 13

E. Seismic data processing - Gain balancing

E - 14

E. Seismic data processing - Gain balancing

E - 15

E. Seismic data processing - Datum statics

Before After

E - 16

E. Seismic data processing - Eliminate direct arrivals

Trace mute

Before After

E - 17

E. Seismic data processing - Multiple attenuation

gather midpoint gather

Multiple

Depth

reflection

Time

Primary

reflections

E - 18

E. Seismic data processing - Multiple attenuation

gather filter multiples gather

Time

Migration

E - 19

E. Seismic data processing - Velocity model feedback loop

3D velocity model

No Yes Stack

E - 20

E. Seismic data processing - Velocity model feedback loop

trace trace Vrms

Time

Time

Windows defined

by the moveout

equation

2

2 2

Tx = To + X

Vrms

E - 21

E. Seismic data processing - Velocity model feedback loop

stack Migrated Data E - 22

E. Seismic data processing - Velocity model feedback loop

2D profile of a 3D 2D section of a 3D

velocity model migrated data cube

Velocity Model P. Schultz SEG Course, Velocity Models

Cox and Perkins / DDD Energy E - 23

E. Seismic data processing - Prestack migration

Source Receiver

Location Location

Pre-stack Migrated

E - 24

E. Seismic data processing - Pre-stack migration

Migration noise

the model

Migrated Model

E - 25

E. Seismic data processing - Pre-stack migration

Un-migrated Model

E - 26

E. Seismic data processing - Pre-stack migration

Decimated Model

(Every fifth trace)

E - 27

E. Seismic data processing - Pre-stack migration

Migrated Model

(Single offset - 600 feet)

E - 28

E. Seismic data processing - Depth migration

Source Receiver

Low Velocity

High Velocity

Depth Migration

E - 29

E. Seismic data processing - Depth migration

Kirchhoff Summation

(Time Display)

Kirchhoff Summation

(Time Display)

E - 30

E. Seismic data processing - Depth migration

(Displayed in Time) (Displayed in Time)

Geophysics Vol. 59, No 10

Whitcomebe et. al. BP E - 31

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Section Outline

Migration geometry

Depth migration

Footnote on DMO

Recent Developments

F-1

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Four migration options

Pre-stack Post-stack

Pre-stack Post-stack

Time time time

migration migration

Pre-stack Post-stack

Depth depth depth

migration migration

F-2

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Migration geometry

F-3

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Migration geometry

F-4

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Migration geometry

SR SR

Reflector surface

travel path

F-5

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Migration geometry

SR

Normal

incidence

travel path

F-6

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Migration geometry

SR SR

Normal

incidence

travel path

Reflector surface

Un-migrated record surface

F-7

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

SR

Trajectory of possible

reflection locations

F-8

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Un-migrated trace

Migrated trace

F-9

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Reflector surface

by Kirchhoff summation

F - 10

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

SR SR

Diffraction hyperbola

F - 11

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Diffraction hyperbola

F - 12

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Diffraction hyperbola

Migration of a diffraction

by Kirchhoff summation

F - 13

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Un-migrated stack

Migrated stack

F - 14

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Un-migrated stack

Migrated stack

F - 15

F. Imaging by seismic migration - The problem with stacking

Common Moveout

mid-point Stacked

Common mid-point corrected

gather trace

traces

F - 16

F. Imaging by seismic migration - The problem with stacking

Traces Migrated

in time traces

Common mid Common image Stacked

Common mid-point trace

point point

Image point

window

3D bin size

F - 17

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

SR SR

Hyperbola

apex

(location of the

time migrated image)

F - 18

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

Time migrated

image

(over migrated) High velocity layer

Depth migrated

image

the time migration algorithm

F - 19

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

Image ray

Time migrated

image

(over migrated) High velocity layer

Depth migrated

image

the time migration algorithm

F - 20

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

6,000’/sec.

6,500’/sec.

12,000’/sec.

7,500’/sec.

8,000’/sec.

F - 21

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

V1

V2

Depth

Depth

V3

V4

Depth

Time

Iso-time

contours

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

F - 23

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

Data Courtesy of

CGG

F - 24

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Four migration options

Pre-stack Post-stack

S R

Time

S R

Depth

F - 25

F. Imaging by seismic migration - The Old Migration decision tree

Migrate

the data

?

Yes

No analysis No

bending

? ?

Yes Yes

Does the

data stack Yes

?

PSDM

No

depth depth time time

migration migration migration migration

F - 26

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

Common

mid-point

Common mid-point

gather

Moveout

for the dipping

Event

False high

velocity

Moveout curve

for a flat lying

event

F - 27

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

mid-point mid-point

F - 28

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

mid-point mid-point

Stack point

F - 29

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

mid-point mid-point

Stack point

F - 30

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

mid-point mid-point

F - 31

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

F - 32

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Recent Developments

TLE 06//05

S.Pharez et al CGG F - 33

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Recent Developments

TLE 06//05

S.Pharez et al CGG F - 34

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Recent Developments

Pre-stack Depth migration Pre-stack Depth Migration

TLE 06//05

J. Ren et al PGS F - 35

F. Imaging by seismic migration - Recent Developments

Pre-stack Depth migration Pre-stack Depth Migration

TLE 06//05

J. Ren et al PGS F - 36

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