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E.

Seismic data processing - Section Outline

Generic processing flow

Preconditioning the data


deconvolution
getting to zero phase
amplitude balancing

The velocity model and migration loop

Pre-stack migration

Depth migration

E-1
E. Seismic data processing - Generic processing flow

Deconvolution for wavelet stabilization and conversion to zero phase

Correction for spherical spreading

Amplitude balancing

Velocity analysis for multiple attenuation

NMO velocity analysis for migration

Test migration

Re-do velocity analysis

Test migration

Migration

Stack

Amplitude balancing

E-2
E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

The land problem The marine problem

Before
deconvolution

After
deconvolution

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E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

Reflection coefficients

Minimum phase wavelet

Wavelet inverse (decon operator)

Trace with a minimum phase wavelet

Deconvolved trace

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E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

Before Deconvolution After Deconvolution

Deconvolution Example for a Land Line


(Un-NMO Corrected Common Midpoint Gathers)

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E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

Definitions
Spike deconvolution
The process of completely removing the wavelet and leaving the
reflection coefficient which is a “spike” in time. This can be viewed
as a destructive interference filter that “interferes” with the wavelet
when it is encountered.

* =
Gap deconvolution
This is a variant on the process of spike deconvolution but, it leaves
the wavelet alone within the width of the “gap” and destructively
interferes with unwanted noise that comes after the wavelet ie.
reverberations.

* =
Gap

E – 5a
E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

The problem with spike deconvolution is that it is notorious for boosting the noise

Wavelet

Noise Noise

Amplitude
Amplitude

Signal Signal

Frequency Frequency

Spectrum of the wavelet in Spectrum after spike


the data deconvolution

E – 5b
E. Seismic data processing - Deconvolution

Definitions
Surface consistent deconvolution
With the trace to trace process of deconvolution as it is normally
applied, it is also adaptive to the noise on the trace giving the
possibility that the statistically derived wavelet is not the “true” signal
in the data. Surface consistent deconvolution derives a single
operator for each shot record and then one for each receiver record
to statistically average out the effect of trace to trace randomness.

Model based deconvolution


The wavelet generated by the source is derived from a computer
modeling program and so is not statistically estimated from every
trace. An deconvolution operator is based on the model and
therefore is a stable inverse operator. For marine data, the model is
based on the number of guns, the gun size, the pressure, the gun
spacing and the water depth.

E – 5c
E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

Before spherical spreading compensation After spherical spreading compensation

E-6
E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

Spherical spreading Transmission loss

Absorption - dispersion Mode conversion

E-7
E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

Spherical spreading

Assuming a velocity model that is


increasing linearly with time:

V(t) = V0 + A t

The travel distance is given by:


1 2
Dist = V0 t + At
2
So to compensate for this, the
samples are multiplied by:
1 2
V0 t + At
2
E -8
E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

Transmission loss

One way transmission coefficient

T=1-R

Since each layer is encountered twice, the


loss is a two way transmission coefficient
T = (1 – R)(1 + R) = 1 – R 2
In general
T(total) = Rn (1 – Rn-1 )(1 – Rn-2 ) ------ (1 – R1)
E-9
E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

Absorption - dispersion The model is that the amplitude loss per


cycle is constant.
The measure of the loss per cycle is “Q”
If the loss per cycle is constant then the
higher frequencies are losing amplitude
faster than the low frequencies.

Shallow section

Wavelet
at 1.0 Sec.

Deep section
Amplitude

Wavelet
at 4.0 Sec.

Frequency
E - 10
E. Seismic data processing - Spherical divergence

Mode conversion

Near Far
offset offset

Gather
Corrected for moveout

E -11
E. Seismic data processing - Gain balancing

AGC (Automatic Gain Control)

Original trace

15 sample AGC

Gain curve

E - 12
E. Seismic data processing - Gain balancing

PGC (Programmed Gain Control)

Original trace

Trace with PGC

Gain curve

E - 13
E. Seismic data processing - Gain balancing

E - 14
E. Seismic data processing - Gain balancing

E - 15
E. Seismic data processing - Datum statics

Before After

E - 16
E. Seismic data processing - Eliminate direct arrivals

Trace mute
Before After

E - 17
E. Seismic data processing - Multiple attenuation

Midpoint NMO corrected


gather midpoint gather

Multiple
Depth

reflection

Time
Primary
reflections

E - 18
E. Seismic data processing - Multiple attenuation

Midpoint Radon transform Data filtered for “Un NMOed”


gather filter multiples gather
Time

Migration

E - 19
E. Seismic data processing - Velocity model feedback loop

Velocity spectra from NMO correction at specific locations

3D velocity model

Migrate the whole data set

Flat image gathers

No Yes Stack

Un-NMO the velocity analysis locations

E - 20
E. Seismic data processing - Velocity model feedback loop

Near Far Vrms “fit”matrix


trace trace Vrms

Time
Time

Windows defined
by the moveout
equation
2
2 2
Tx = To + X
Vrms

E - 21
E. Seismic data processing - Velocity model feedback loop

Velocity Spectrum of Pre-


stack Migrated Data E - 22
E. Seismic data processing - Velocity model feedback loop

2D profile of a 3D 2D section of a 3D
velocity model migrated data cube
Velocity Model P. Schultz SEG Course, Velocity Models
Cox and Perkins / DDD Energy E - 23
E. Seismic data processing - Prestack migration

Source Receiver
Location Location

Single Seismic Trace


Pre-stack Migrated
E - 24
E. Seismic data processing - Pre-stack migration

Migration noise

End effect from


the model
Migrated Model

E - 25
E. Seismic data processing - Pre-stack migration

Un-migrated Model

E - 26
E. Seismic data processing - Pre-stack migration

Decimated Model
(Every fifth trace)
E - 27
E. Seismic data processing - Pre-stack migration

Migrated Model
(Single offset - 600 feet)
E - 28
E. Seismic data processing - Depth migration

Source Receiver

Low Velocity

High Velocity

Velocity Model Distorted Ellipse Sweep

Depth Migration
E - 29
E. Seismic data processing - Depth migration

Poststack Time Migration by


Kirchhoff Summation
(Time Display)

Pre-stack Depth Migration by


Kirchhoff Summation
(Time Display)

E - 30
E. Seismic data processing - Depth migration

Time Migration Depth Migration


(Displayed in Time) (Displayed in Time)
Geophysics Vol. 59, No 10
Whitcomebe et. al. BP E - 31
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Section Outline

The four migration options

Migration geometry

Kirchhoff summation as an ellipse sweep

The idea of pre-stack imaging to solve the stacking problem

Depth migration

The migration decision tree

Four migration options review

Footnote on DMO

Recent Developments

F-1
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Four migration options

Pre-stack Post-stack

Pre-stack Post-stack
Time time time
migration migration

Pre-stack Post-stack
Depth depth depth
migration migration

F-2
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Migration geometry

F-3
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Migration geometry

F-4
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Migration geometry

SR SR

Reflector surface

Normal incidence Un-migrated record surface


travel path

Stacked (ZSR) traces

F-5
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Migration geometry

SR

Normal
incidence
travel path

Stacked (ZSR) trace


F-6
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Migration geometry

SR SR

Normal
incidence
travel path

Reflector surface
Un-migrated record surface

Stacked (ZSR) traces

F-7
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

SR

Trajectory of possible
reflection locations

Stacked (ZSR) trace

F-8
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Un-migrated trace

Migrated trace

F-9
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Reflector surface

Migration of stacked (ZSR) trace


by Kirchhoff summation

F - 10
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

SR SR

Diffraction hyperbola

Stacked (ZSR) traces

F - 11
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Diffraction hyperbola

Stacked (ZSR) traces

F - 12
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Diffraction hyperbola

Migration of a diffraction
by Kirchhoff summation

F - 13
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Un-migrated stack

Migrated stack

F - 14
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Kirchhoff summation

Un-migrated stack

Migrated stack

F - 15
F. Imaging by seismic migration - The problem with stacking

Common Moveout
mid-point Stacked
Common mid-point corrected
gather trace
traces

Moveout in the presence of dip

F - 16
F. Imaging by seismic migration - The problem with stacking

Traces Migrated
in time traces
Common mid Common image Stacked
Common mid-point trace
point point

Image point
window
3D bin size

Image point gather


F - 17
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

SR SR

Low velocity layer

High velocity layer


Hyperbola
apex
(location of the
time migrated image)

Stacked (ZSR) traces

F - 18
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

Low velocity layer

Time migrated
image
(over migrated) High velocity layer
Depth migrated
image

Over migration caused by


the time migration algorithm

F - 19
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

Image ray

Low velocity layer

Time migrated
image
(over migrated) High velocity layer
Depth migrated
image

Over migration caused by


the time migration algorithm

F - 20
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

6,000’/sec.

6,500’/sec.

12,000’/sec.

7,500’/sec.

8,000’/sec.

Image ray model


F - 21
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

3D depth velocity model 3D ray tracing

V1
V2

Depth
Depth

V3

V4

Depth
Time

Iso-time
contours

3D time (stacked) data cube 3D “sweep” ray tracing F - 22


F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

Profile of a 3D sweep cube

F - 23
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Depth migration

3D Post-stack Time Migration

3D Pre-ststack Depth Migration

Data Courtesy of
CGG

F - 24
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Four migration options

Pre-stack Post-stack

S R

Time

S R

Depth

F - 25
F. Imaging by seismic migration - The Old Migration decision tree

Migrate
the data
?

Yes

Image ray AVO


No analysis No
bending
? ?

Yes Yes

Does the
data stack Yes
?
PSDM
No

Pre-stack Post-stack Pre-stack Post-stack


depth depth time time
migration migration migration migration
F - 26
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

Common
mid-point
Common mid-point
gather

Moveout
for the dipping
Event
False high
velocity
Moveout curve
for a flat lying
event

Moveout in the presence of dip

F - 27
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

Common Correct common


mid-point mid-point

Moveout in the presence of dip

F - 28
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

Common Correct common


mid-point mid-point

Stack point

Moveout in the presence of dip

F - 29
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

Common Correct common


mid-point mid-point

Stack point

Moveout in the presence of dip

F - 30
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

Common Correct common


mid-point mid-point

DMO sweep curves

F - 31
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Footnote on DMO

Post-stack Migration no DMO Post-stack Migration with DMO

F - 32
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Recent Developments

Pre-stack Kirchhoff Migration Pre-stack Wave Equation Migration

TLE 06//05
S.Pharez et al CGG F - 33
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Recent Developments

Pre-stack Kirchhoff Migration Pre-stack Wave Equation Migration


TLE 06//05
S.Pharez et al CGG F - 34
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Recent Developments

Anisotropic Wave Equation Isotropic Wave Equation


Pre-stack Depth migration Pre-stack Depth Migration
TLE 06//05
J. Ren et al PGS F - 35
F. Imaging by seismic migration - Recent Developments

Anisotropic Kirchhoff Isotropic Kirchhoff


Pre-stack Depth migration Pre-stack Depth Migration
TLE 06//05
J. Ren et al PGS F - 36