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ITE321 System Analysis, Design &

Implementation

Chapter 2
Project Selection and Management
R O B E RTA R O T H , A L A N D E N N I S , A N D B A R B A R A
HALEY WIXOM

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OBJECTIVES
■ Explain how projects are selected in some organizations.
■ Describe various approaches to the SDLC that can be used to structure a development project.
■ Explain how to select a project methodology based on project characteristics.
■ Become familiar with project estimation.
■ Be able to create a project work plan.
■ Describe project staffing issues and concerns.
■ Describe and apply techniques to coordinate and manage the project.
■ Explain how to manage risk on the project.

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Chapter 2 Outline
 Project selection.
 Creating the project plan.
 Managing and controlling the project.

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INTRODUCTION
 CIOs (chief information officers) are challenged to select projects that will provide highest
return on the IT investments.

 Project portfolio management has become a critical success factor for IT departments.

 A selected system development project must undergo a thorough process of project


management.

 A critical success factor for project management is to start with a realistic assessment of the
work and then manage the project according to the plan.

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PROJECT SELECTION
 Systems projects today are evaluated in the context of an
entire portfolio of projects.
 Determination of a project’s contribution to an entire
portfolio of a project reinforces the need for a feasibility
study.
 Portfolio management takes into consideration the
different of projects that exist in an organization.

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(cont’d)
 An approval committee must be selective about where to allocate
resources as most organizations have limited funds.
 If there are several potentially high-payoff projects, and they all
have the same risk, then maybe only one of the projects will be
selected.

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CREATING THE PROJECT PLAN
Project management phases consist of
- initiation
- planning
- execution
- control, and
- enclosure.

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Project Methodology Options
A methodology is a formalized approach to implementing the SDLC.
- Waterfall Development
- Parallel Development
- V-model (variation of the Waterfall Development)
- Rapid Application Development (RAD)
- Iterative Development
- System prototyping
- Agile Development

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Waterfall Development

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Waterfall Development
Waterfall is a linear approach to software development. In this
methodology, the sequence of events is something like:

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The Advantages of the Waterfall Model
The requirements are clearly and accurately stated, they remain unchanged throughout the
entire project development;
Detailed documentation of each development stage provides resistance to changes in human
resources – a new developer can quickly get all the necessary information;
Careful planning of the project development structure reduces the number of problematic
issues;
The start and end points for each phase are set, which makes it easy to measure progress;
The tasks remain as stable as possible throughout the development process;
It provides easy control and transparency for the customer due to a strict reporting system;
Release date for the finished product, as well as its final cost can be calculated prior to
development.
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The Disadvantages of the Waterfall
Model
All requirements must be known prior to development, which greatly
delays the project kickoff;
Low flexibility level makes it difficult to make changes while
developing, or even makes it completely impossible;
There is a need for strict management and regular monitoring, so that the
project will meet the deadline;
The client does not have the opportunity to get acquainted with the
system in advance, so he does not see the product until the moment of its
completion;
In case it becomes clear in the process of development that the product
does not meet market requirements, there will be no room for changes.

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Parallel Development

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V-model

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Rapid Application Development:
Iterative Development

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Rapid Application Development:
System Prototyping

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(cont’d)
Throwaway prototyping

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Agile Development
A group of programming-centric methodologies that focus on
streamlining the SDLC.
Includes face-to-face communication
Extreme programming – emphasizes customer satisfaction and
teamwork.

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Extreme Programming

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Selecting the Appropriate Development
Methodology

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(cont’d)
Important factors to consider in selecting the development methodology
- Clarity of User Requirements
- Familiarity with Technology
- System Complexity
- System Reliability
- Short Time Schedules
- Schedule Visibility

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Developing the Work Plan
Identify Tasks

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(cont’d)
Work Breakdown Structure

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(cont’d)
The project work plan

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STAFFING THE PROJECT
Staffing Plan
- Staffing levels will change over a project’s lifetime
- Adding staff may add more overhead than additional
labor
- Using teams of 8-10 reporting in a hierarchical
structure can reduce complexity

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(cont’d)
Reporting structure

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(cont’d)
The staffing plan describes the kinds of people working on the project
The project charter describes the project’s objectives and rules
A functional lead manages a group of analysts
A technical lead oversees progress of programmers and technical staff
members

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Motivation
Use monetary rewards cautiously
Use intrinsic rewards
◦ Recognition
◦ Achievement
◦ The work itself
◦ Responsibility
◦ Advancement
◦ Chance to learn new skills

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Handling Conflict
Clearly define plans for the project.
Recognize project importance to organization.
Project charter listing norms and ground rules.
Develop schedule commitments ahead of time.
Forecast other priorities and their possible impact on the project.

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Coordinating Project Activities
CASE (computer-aided software engineering) tools – A category of
software that automate all or part of the development process.
- Upper CASE
- Lower CASE
- Integrated CASE

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(cont’d)
 Standards
Formal rules for naming files
Forms indicating goals reached
Programming guidelines

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(cont’d)
 Documentation
Project binder
Table of contents
Continual updating

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MANAGING AND CONTROLLING
THE PROJECT
The science (or art) of project management is in making
trade-offs among three important concepts:
- the size of the system,
- the time to complete the project, and
- the cost of the project.

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(cont’d) Tools for project management – Example of Gantt Chart

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Refining Estimates

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Managing Scope
 Scope creep – the most common reason for schedule and cost
overruns occurs after the project is underway.
 The project manager should allow only absolutely necessary
requirements to be added after the project begins.

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Timeboxing
 Set a fixed deadline for a project
 Reduce functionality, if necessary
 Don’t get hung up on the final “finishing touches”

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Timeboxing steps

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Managing Risk
 Risk assessment
 Actions to reduce risk
 Revised assessment

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SUMMARY
 The project selection process takes into account all of the
projects in the organization, using project portfolio management.
 The project plan defines the tasks, task time estimates, and other
information.
 A project requires staffing and coordinating project activities.
 Managing and controlling the project include time boxing and
risk assessment.

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ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR
UNDERSTANDING

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