You are on page 1of 22

B747 – 400 SIMULTOR TRAINING

PRESENTATIONS
OVERVIEW
• Objectives;
• Introduction;
• Operative conditions;
• Layouts (VHHH – Airport chart and ILS 07R);
• Mix profile;
• T/O & Climb procedures;
• Area Work (Steep Turns);
• Approach ILS 07R ;
• Missed Approach;
• Landing (Tips & Risk);
• Common errors;
• RECAP;
• Questions.
OBJECTIVES
• Familiarization with the cockpit, the visual
references, the plane size and maneuverability;

• Practice BASIC FLYING SKILLS in raw data:


– Takeoff, Steep Tuns, GA, Landing;

• Start to build your proficiency by increasing your


“BAG OF KNOWLEDGE”;

• Follow the SOPs and STD Callouts.


INTRODUCTION
Human Factor aspects/phases of ability
• The Knowledge phase = you know the topics
– The plane, the systems,the SOPs, the rules,etc..
How to improve it?
Dedication

• The Proficiency phase = you need to use the knowledge to


perform your pilot duties.
How to improve it?
Practicing and always be ready to be menthored

• The Capability phase = adapt the knowledge and the


proficiency to every situation.
How to arrive here?
Experience, integrity, never be complacent
OPERATIVE CONDITIONS
• A/D HKG (Day/Night) : T/O Rwy 25L - Lnd Rwy 07R;
• A/C : TOW=LW 270.000Kgs (stable platform) on the rwy with
engine runnings and T/O configuration;
• WX : rwy dry - wind calm – T15 – QNH 1013 – BKN002 –VIS
9999;
• Radio aids : ILS 07R ISR(109.3) – ADFs LC(390) on thd 07R (all
presetted and you can assume correctly ID);
• Terrain has been removed (no hills) and GPWS breaker pulled;
• No Radio call required;
• Raw data : no FD,AP,FPV,A/THR = manual control inputs only;
• Thrust setting : TBN
Layouts
Layouts
X
X
MIX PROFILE
• T/O Rwy 25L – Track Localizer - Clean up – accelerate to
250kts;

• Climb to 2500 ft – level off - accelerate to 280kts;

• HDG changes and Steep Turns 45°/60° AOB – RDR vectors


to intercept ILS 07R;

• GA at min. : Rwy HDG (073)/2500ft – Clean up – accelerate to


250kts;

• Maintain 250kts – RDR Vector to intercept ILS 07R;

• ILS 07R;

• Full Stop Landing.


T/O & CLIMB PROCEDURES

EPR ATT SPD


T/O 1.50 12 1/2° V2 + 10KTS
ACC. (1000FT) 1.40 7 1/2° while accel. and cleaning up
CLB 1.40 11 1/2° while climbing
LVL 1.16 4 1/2° 250kts
T/O & CLIMB PROCEDURES
TAKEOFF (EPR 1.50 – ATT 12 ½°- SPD V2+10kts)
CLIMB/ACC. (EPR 1.40 – ATT 7 ½°)
CLIMB (EPR 1.40 – ATT 11 ½°)
EVENT PF PM
When ready for Takeoff Set Thrust
Thrust Set
At 80kts 80kts
Check
At V1 V1
At VR Rotate
After positive rate Gear UP
verified Positive rate – Gear UP
At FLAP Retraction ALT FLAPS ___
and desired SPD Speed Check – FLAPS ___
At Climb Thrust Climb Thrust
schedule Climb ___ set
AREA WORK
• HDG variations to gain confidence;
• STEEP TURNS (2 x 360° @ 45°/60° AOB):
 Reference HDG - N1 – SPD – ALTITUDE;
 It is a visual maneuver ;
 Passing 30° AOB just add some power (± 2% N1 on final
correction);
 Feel the G load;
 Altitude correction with elevator, no Rudder;
• AVOID:
• Unstable entry;
• Overcorrect (PIO);
• Do not use opposite rudder to correct for altitude;

PRACTICE – PRACTICE – PRACTICE


APPROACH ILS 07R

EPR ATT SPD


APP 1.18 1 1/2° VREF
FAP = D7.7 ISR (½ dot descent)
Turn Radius @ 250kts (RoT):
•90° ≅ 2.2nm
•45° ≅ 1.1nm
•30° ≅ 0.7nm
Be aware of the target V/S,
Loc Inb crs Dme Spd Check your GS
APPROACH ILS 07R
APPROACH (EPR 1.18 - ATT 1 1/2° - SPD VREF +5kts) & LANDING
EVENT PF PM
On each flap extention Flaps ___
Speed Check, Flaps ___
First positive movement of LOC moving
the LOC Check
First positive mov. of GS GS moving
Check
1000ft RA 1000 Lnd Chkl complete
Check
500ft RA 500
Check
100ft above minima ---- Plus 100
DH/MDA Minimums
Land/GA set thrust
Before touchdown ---- 50, 40, 30, 20, 10
Touchdown ---- Speedbrakes UP
At 70kts ---- 70kts
MISSED APPROACH

EPR ATT SPD


GA 1.50 15° VREF + 10KTS
• BE ALWAYS GO-MINDED;
• LEARN BY HARD AT LEAST 3/4 INFORMATIONS :
 INITIAL TURN (LT,RT)-ALTITUDE-MSA-TYPE OF HOLDING ENTRY (HDG);
• SCAN WX OF THE MA TRACK (request new CLIMB OUT if necessary);
• APPROACHING MINIMA JUST REVIEW THE MANUAL PROCEDURE IN YOUR
MIND;
• IF YOU NEED TO LOOK AT THE PLATE AFTER THE OM/4NM = POOR
APPROACH PREPARATION.
MISSED APPROACH
MISSED APPROACH (EPR 1.50 – ATT 15° - SPD VREF + 10kts)
EVENT PF PM
If GA is required GA Set Thrust/Max Thrust,
Flaps 20

Speed Check Flaps 20,


Trust Set/Max Thrust SEt
Confirm positive ROC Gear UP
before gear retraction

Positive rate, GEAR UP


At flap retraction altitude, Flaps ___
accelerate and retract flaps
on schedule

Speed Checks, Flaps ___

3 Ps : PITCH – POWER - PERFORMACE


LANDING TIPS

• Early alignment – do not accept any lateral


displacement from the centerline;

• Be stable crossing the threshold;

• Visualize the attitude;

• Be carefull with the pitch;

• Do not go below the glide.


LANDING RISKS
• BALOONING: (can be caused by multiple factors):
 GA or just stop it to re-flare (Long LD);

• FLARE TOO HIGH: (risk of hard landing/bouncing, tailstrke, long LD):


 GA or be carefull with the pitch during the second flare;

• FLARE TOO LOW: (risk of hard lnd or 3 pts landings with the possibility of
NLG collapse);

• TAILSTRIKE:
 Speed < Vapp before the flare;
 Too high sink rate before the flare height;
 Flare too high (decresing airspeed and long float);
 Prolunged hold-off to reach a smooth touchdown;
 Bouncing;
 Poor xwind handling.

STABLE APP. – NOT CHASE THE GS CLOSE TO GND – AVOID HIGH SINK RATE
CLOSE TO THE GND
COMMON ERRORS
Lost of SA is the key element that brings to commit all the
mistakes. Basically use CRM to regain it.

Indicators of LOST SA Steps to REGAIN SA


CONFUSION = Feeling that you BUY SOME TIME = request long
are missing something. vectors, reduce speed, etc..

FIXATION = Channelizing the


attention (parameter, aim STABILIZE the aircraft.
point,etc).

POOR COMM. = whenever we


stop talking means that we are SEEK INFORMATIONS =
loosing SA so we lose visual and aural info to restore
important ATC comm., Std your confident level.
callouts,etc…
RECAP
• T/O rwy 25L – good wx (BKN 002) EPR 1.50/ ATT 12 ½° - V2 + 10KTS:
 Maintain the centerline, fast skanning (do not overspeed);
• SPD 280kts – HDG changes and STEEP TURNS:
 Build your confidence, visual maneuver, increse power passing 30°
AOB, feel the Gs + ease off during roll out;
• ILS 07R EPR 1.18/ATT 1 ½ ° - FLAPS 30 – VREF + 5kts;
 Stable approach , avoid to chase the parameters (PIO), visualize the
references.
• Missed Approach (Rwy hdg@2500ft – EPR 1.50/ATT 15° - VREF +10kts:
 3 Ps (pitch,power,performance), do not sink, check positive ROC before
raising the gear;
• ILS 07R to FULL STOP:
 Stable approach, fast alignment with the centerline, do not shift your
aimpoint close to the gnd.

DEVELOP YOUR ABILITIES THROUGH TRAINING AND MASTER THEM


THROUGH EXPERIENCE
QUESTIONS ?
THANK YOU