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KNOWLEDGE THEORIES SUPPORTING CLIL

UNIT 1
•When two people are engaged in talking to each other we can be
fairly sure that they are doing so for communication.

•Whenever communication takes place, of course, there is a


speaker (writer) and a listener (reader).

Jeremy Harmer.
The Practice of English Language Teaching
LANGUAGE
IS…

COMMUNICATION

MESSAGE

1.WANTS TO LISTEN TO
SPEAKER 1.WANTS TO SAY SOMETHING
2. HAS A COMMUNICATIVE SOMETHING LISTENER
2. INTERESTED IN
WRITER PURPOSE
3. SELECTS FROM LANGUAGE COMMUNICATIVE PURPOSE READER
3. PROCESSES A VARIETY OF
STORE
LANGUAGE
LANGUAGE Really?
SKILLS Then, this is my
message…

SPEAKING
LISTENING

LANGUAGE
LANGUAGE
OUTPUT
INPUT

READING WRITING
PREVIOUS CONCEPTS
HIGHER ORDER THINKING
Thinking is the hardest work there is, which is probably the reason
why so few engage in it.
-Henry Ford
H: Higher
 No one thinks perfectly or poorly all the time.
QUICK FACTS ABOUT HIGHER ORDER THINKING
O: Order
 Memorizing something is not the same as thinking about it.
T: Thinking
 You can memorize something without understanding it.
 Thinking is done in both words and pictures.
 There are three main types of intelligence and thinking:
analytical, creative and practical.
 All three intelligences and ways of thinking are useful in our
everyday lives.
 You can improve your thinking skills by understanding the
processes involved in thinking.
 Metacognition-thinking about thinking-is part of higher order
thinking.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING (HOT)
 HOT does not include memorization.
 HOT requires that we do something with the facts.

 We must understand them, connect them to each other,


categorize them, manipulate them, put them together in new
or novel ways, and apply them as we seek new solutions to
new problems.
 Higher Order Thinking involves metacognition.

 Metacognition is thinking about your thinking. When a learner


uses metacognition they are contemplating and revising their
thoughts continuously to make sure they truly understand the
information.
BLOOM’S TAXONOMY

What is it and where did it come from?


BLOOM’S TIMELINE
 1948: Benjamin Bloom and a group of psychologists studied
classroom activities and goals teachers has while planning
these activities.
 Through this study three domains were concluded:
 Cognitive Domain
 Affective Domain
 Psychomotor Domain

 Cognitive Domain was split into a hierarchy of 6


thinking skills: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and
evaluation.

 1956: Original Bloom’s Taxonomy is published

http://learngen.org/Resources/lgend101_norm1/3000/3100_4/3130/3131alias2.html
 In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists
who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behaviour important
in learning.
BLOOM’S TIMELINE CONTINUED
 1995: Lorin Anderson, a former student of Benjamin Bloom, led
another team of psychologists in revising the original Bloom’s
Taxonomy to represent the 21st century.
 Changes occurred in terminology, structure, and emphasis.
See the next slide for more information on the changes.
 2001: The final revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy was published.
New Bloom’s taxonomy

ORIGINAL TERMS NEW TERMS

 Evaluation  Creating

 Synthesis  Evaluating

 Analysis  Analysing

 Application  Applying

 Comprehension  Understanding

 Knowledge  Remembering

(Based on Pohl, 2000, Learning to Think, Thinking to Learn, p. 8)


WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
Original Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy

 Terminology: Used nouns to  Terminology: Uses verbs to


describe the levels of describe the levels of thinking.
thinking.  Structure: Two dimensional
using the Knowledge
 Structure: One dimensional Dimension and how it interacts
using the Cognitive Process. with the Cognitive Process.
See next slide for an interactive
 Emphasis was originally for grid.
educators and  Emphasis is placed upon its
psychologists. Bloom’s use as a more authentic tool for
taxonomy was used by curriculum planning,
many other audiences. instructional delivery and
assessment.

http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Bloom%27s_Taxonomy#Revised_Bloo
m.27s_Taxonomy_.28RBT.29
WHO USES BLOOM’S?

Those who know how to think need no teachers.


-Mahatma Gandhi
WE ALL THINK…BUT ARE WE USING HOT SKILLS?
Creating: How
would you adapt
Using questions from the plot to create

USING BLOOM’S IN THE CLASSROOM


a different story?
Teachers all levels of Bloom’s Evaluating: What
can will help you scaffold choice would you
have made if you
implement learning and were in the story?

Bloom’s differentiate instruction Analyzing: How is this story


Taxonomy the easy way! related to your life?

by using
Applying: What questions would you ask in
HOT an interview with the main character?

Questions!
Understanding: What is the main idea of the story?

Remembering: Who was the main character?


TIERS OF REVISED BLOOM’S TAXONOMY
OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS TO TRIGGER HIGHER-
ORDER THINKING

 What is the difference between … and ….?


 Explain why…

 What would happen, if…

 What’s another example of…?

 How could ….be used to….?

 What is the counter argument for?

 What are the causes of…? How do you know?


SOMETIMES THE TEACHER KNOWS THE ANSWERS…

T: Who is the greatest composer?


S: Beethoven
T: Wrong. Bach.
T: Name me one Russian composer.
S: Tchaikovsky.
T: Wrong. Rimsky-Korsakov.
(Quoted in Edwards & Westgate 1994)
OTHER VISUALIZATIONS OF BLOOM’S
BLOOMING ORANGE
This is
based on
the
original
Bloom’s
but I
thought it
was a
great
illustration.

http://fisheggs.typepad.
com/forty-
fisheggs/2010/06/fisheg
g-129-blooms-
taxonomy-levels-of-
thinking.html
BLOOMING BUTTERFLY
DIGITAL REVISED BLOOM’S TAXONOMY
Technology is integrated in almost every part of lesson
preparation and presentation. Scholars have now come up with a
digital Bloom’s Taxonomy. Check it out!!
WHAT DO YOU USE EVERYDAY? ARE YOU USING YOUR
HOT SKILLS?

There is a whole
website dedicated
to digital Bloom’s!
Check it out here:
http://visualblooms.
wikispaces.com/
LET’S ROLE-PLAY

 You are in a hot air balloon which is losing height rapidly and
will soon crash because it is overweight; therefore you have to
get rid of seven of the passengers!

 Who would you choose?


USING THE BRAIN
MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
WHO IS INTELLIGENT?
8 INTELLIGENCES – BY DR. HOWARD GARDNER
1. Linguistic
2. Logical/ Mathematical
3. Spatial
4. Bodily/ Kinesthetic
5. Musical
6. Interpersonal
7. Intrapersonal
8. Naturalistic
CAN YOU DEFINE INTELLIGENCE?

Beatrix Potter: writer


Linguistic Intelligence
Skilled with words
CAN YOU DEFINE INTELLIGENCE?

Albert Einstein
Logical/ Mathematical
Intelligence
Skilled with numbers &
reasoning
“The Questioner”
CAN YOU DEFINE INTELLIGENCE?

Joaquín Salvador Lavado (Quino)


Spatial Intelligence
Skilled with pictures &
images
“The Visualizer”
CAN YOU DEFINE INTELLIGENCE?

Rafael Nadal
Bodily/ Kinesthetic
Intelligence
Physical skill
“The Mover”
CAN YOU DEFINE INTELLIGENCE?

Montserrat Caballé
Musical Intelligence
Skilled with melody &
rhythm
“The Music Lover”
CAN YOU DEFINE INTELLIGENCE?

Nelson Mandela
Interpersonal Intelligence
Skills of social
understanding
“The Socializer”
CAN YOU DEFINE INTELLIGENCE?

Helen Keller
Intrapersonal Intelligence
Skills of self-knowledge
“The Individual”
CAN YOU DEFINE INTELLIGENCE?

Brigitte Bardot
Naturalistic Intelligence
Skills of making
connection to elements
in nature
“The Outdoorsperson”
LINGUISTIC

If you have strong linguistic intelligence you might learn better by

Reading

Memorizing

Playing word games (Scrabble, Anagrams, Password)

Making up rhymes, puns

Using the internet


LOGICAL/MATHEMATICAL LEARNER

If you have strong logical-mathematical intelligence you might learn


better by

Recording information systematically

Setting up experiments (“What if…?”)

Playing strategy games (Chess, Checkers)

Analyzing data

Asking logical questions

Using the internet


SPATIAL LEARNER
If you have strong spatial intelligence you might learn better by

Studying pictures

Watching videos

Using visual, tangible aids

Doing mazes, puzzles

Making predictions

Using the internet


BODILY/KINESTHETIC LEARNER
If you have strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence you might learn better
by

Doing role plays

Constructing physical examples

Exercising while reviewing

Visiting museums, institutions, parks

Asking logical questions

Using the internet


MUSICAL LEARNER

If you have strong musical intelligence you might learn better by

Listening to recordings

Talking to yourself

Making up songs

Mentally repeating information

Reading aloud

Changing tempo
INTERPERSONAL LEARNER

If you have strong interpersonal intelligence you might learn better by

Studying in groups

Comparing information with others

Interviewing experts

Relating personal experiences

Being a teamplayer

Doing cooperative projects


INTRAPERSONAL LEARNER

If you have strong intrapersonal intelligence you might learn better by

Avoiding distractions

Establishing personal goals

Playing solitary games

Setting own pace

Working alone

Relating personal experiences


NATURALISTIC LEARNER

If you have strong naturalistic intelligence you might learn better by

Studying outside

Learning in the presence of plants & pets

Relating environmental issues to topics

Smelling, seeing touching, tasting,

Observing natural phenomenon


MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCES
Studies continue…
 Emotional Intelligence
 Naturalistic Intelligence
 Moral Intelligence
 Spiritual Intelligence
SCAFFOLDING

 Scaffolding is a well-known metaphor widely used in education and


language teaching to describe the guidance, collaboration and
support provided by teachers to lead children to new learning. As the
metaphor implies,scaffolding is a temporary construct which can be
put up,taken down, reinforced and strengthened, or dismantled piece
by piece once it is no longer needed, and as children develop
language and skills which enable them to act in an increasingly
competent, confident and independent way (Read, 2006).
ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT
 We need to develop thinking skills as well as language skills
and there needs to be an appropriate balance between
linguistic and cognitive challenge.
SOME SCAFFOLDING STRATEGIES
 Show and Tell *
 Tap into Prior Knowledge

 Give Time to Talk**

 Pre-Teach Vocabulary

 Use Visual Aids

 Pause, Ask Questions, Pause, Review

You have to slow down in order to go quickly


Does language teaching really help? When
does it help and when does it NOT help?
EFFECTING VARIABLES
 Comprehensible input (causative)
 Strength of the filter (causative)

 Language teaching Stephen Kashen


 Exposure variable

 Age

 Acculturation
THE ACQUISITION-LEARNING HYPOTHESIS

 Acquisition = subconsciously picking up


 Learning = conscious
 Error correction
 Explicit instruction

 Children acquire language better than adults


THE NATURAL ORDER HYPOTHESIS
 Grammar structures are acquired in a predictable order
 L2 learning order is different from L1 order

 L2 learning adults and children show similar order


THE MONITOR HYPOTHESIS
 Acquisition has the central role
 Learning functions as a Monitor
 3 conditions needed to use Monitor
 Time
 Focus on form
 Know the rule
 When Monitor is not used, errors are natural
 Pedagogically: study of grammar has a place, but a limited one
THE INPUT HYPOTHESIS
 We acquire by comprehensible input (i) + 1
 Input Hypothesis relates to acquisition, not learning

 Focus not on structure but on understanding the


message
 Do not teach structure deliberately; i+1 is provided
naturally when input is understood
 Production ability emerges. It’s not taught directly
THE AFFECTIVE FILTER HYPOTHESIS
 Motivation
 Self-confidence

 Anxiety

 Lower affective filter will go further

Affective Filter

Language Acquisition
Language Device Acquired
Input Competence