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Syed Tahir Hussain
Lecture Three: Topics
 Islamic Worships: Spiritual, Moral and Social
 Islamic Concept of worship
 Salat and Its Impacts
 Zakat and its Impacts
 Saum and its Impacts
 Hajj and its Impacts
Islamic Concept of worship
 The word ‘Ibadat’ is derived from ‘Abd’.
 Abd means servant or slave
 So, Ibadat means Slavery.
Quran Says
ِ ‫نس إِ ََّّل ِليَ ْعبُد‬
‫ُون‬ ِ ْ ‫َو َما َخلَ ْقتُ ا ْل ِج َّن َو‬
َ ‫اْل‬
I created the jinn and humans for nothing else but that they may serve

 Human beings are creature thus bond-servant of God.

 Worships, according to Islam, is a means for the purification of
man’s soul and his practical life.
‫‪Pillars of Islam:‬‬

‫ع َم َر رضي هللا عنه قَا َل‪:‬‬ ‫ع ِن اب ِْن ُ‬‫َ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫َّللا صلى هللا عليه وسلم‬‫سو ُل ه ِ‬ ‫قَا َل َر ُ‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫علَى خ َْمس‪:‬‬
‫اإل ْس ََل ُم َ‬
‫ي ِ‬ ‫«بُنِ َ‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫َّللا‪،‬‬ ‫َّللاُ َوأ َ هن ُم ََح همداا َر ُ‬
‫سو ُل ه ِ‬ ‫ش َها َدةِ أ َ ْن ََل ِإلَهَ ِإ هَل ه‬‫َ‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫ص ََل ِة‪،‬‬‫َو ِإقَ ِام ال ه‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫اء ه‬
‫الز َكا ِة‪،‬‬ ‫َو ِإيت َ ِ‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫ج‪،‬‬‫َوال ََح ِ‬ ‫‪‬‬
‫ان»‪.‬‬ ‫ض َ‬ ‫ص ْو ِم َر َم َ‬ ‫َو َ‬ ‫‪‬‬
The five Pillars of Islam are:
 The Shahadah (Declaration of faith) –
 Trusting and understanding the words of the Shahadah.
 "There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad (SAW) is the final messenger.“

 Prayer (Salah) –

 Charity or alms-giving (Zakat) –

 Fasting during the month of Ramadan (Sawm)

 A pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) - Muslims should go to Mecca on a pilgrimage.

 at least once in their lives.
 If means allow it.
Prayer (Salat)
 Prayer (Salat) originally carries the meaning of either:
 Supplication (du’a);
‫س َك ٌن له ُه ْم‬ َ ‫ص ِل َعلَ ْي ِه ْم ِإ هن‬
َ ‫ص ََلت َ َك‬ َ ‫َو‬
103 ‫ اآلية‬- ‫سورة التوبة‬
And pray on their behalf. Verily thy prayers are a source of security
for them.

 Veneration, or mercy and blessing

‫س ِل ُموا تَ ْسليما ا‬ َ ‫صلُّوا‬
َ ‫علَ ْي ِه َو‬ َ ‫علَي النهبِي ِ يا أَيُّ َها الهذينَ م َمنُوا‬
َ َ‫صلُّون‬ َ ‫ِإ هن ه‬
َ ُ‫َّللا َو َمَلئِ َکتَهُ ي‬
Allah and His angels bless the Prophet. Believers, invoke blessings and
peace on him.
( ‫ سوره اَحزاب‬56 ‫)ميه‬
The meaning of Salat as Prayer

 The generally recognized act of worship that

contains bowing and prostrating is called
 because major parts of it contain acts of
supplicating, the original meaning of the word.
 The vast majority of Qur’anic usage of ‘salat’
is of this kind.
 It is also argued that salat derives from
veneration (the second possibility listed
above); prayer is thus called because it
contains the veneration of God.
Categories of Prayer:
 Fard prayers are compulsory. The denial of its compulsory status to render the denier outside the fold of
 Some Ulema believe that Wajib prayers are compulsory while others believe Optional
 WITR: Witr is performed after the salah of isha’a ,
 EID:
 Nimaz-e-Kasoof: sunnat e muakadah.. Lunar Eclipse,
 Nimaz-e-Khasoof: sunnat e muakadah: Solar Eclipse
 Nafl salah are optional and regarded as extra prayers which bring more reward. They are usually
performed along with the 5 daily prayers, but can be performed at other times as well.
Impacts of Prayer on Human life: Spiritual
‫ان الصلواۃ تنہا عن الفحشاء والمنکر‬
1. Physical cleanliness
2. Closeness to God
3. Purification of Soul
4. Patience
5. Perseverance
6. Sense of duty
7. Practice of Obedience
8. Creating fear of God
9. Awareness of Divine Law
Impacts of Prayer on Human life: Moral
and Social Impact
 Moral Impacts  Social Impacts:
 Punctuality  Social organization and
 Sense of duty and discipline
responsibility  Mosques as Community
 Self Discipline Centres
 Self Control  Mutual Help and Co-
 Humility
 Equality and Brother hood
 Character-Building
 Training and Jihad
 Bravery
 Respect for the rights of
 Tolerance
 Unity
 It means “purification, growth, giving better part of a
 Third pillar of Islam.
 Nisab of Zakat
1. Silver 200 dirhams or 52½ tolas
2. Gold 7½
3. Goat 40 Camels
4. Cow 30 Cows
5. Merchandise Equal to the price of 52 ½ tolas of Silver.
 Whosoever has the above in possession for a period of
one year, Zakat is incumbent on him.
Masarif of Zakat(Those Entitled to receive Zakat)

ِ ‫علَ ْي َها َو ْال ُم َؤلهفَ ِة قُلُوبُ ُه ْم َوفِي ا ِلرقَا‬

‫ب‬ ِ َ‫ين َو ْالع‬
َ َ‫ام ِلين‬ َ ‫اء َو ْال َم‬
ِ ‫سا ِك‬ ِ ‫ص َدقَاتُ ِل ْلفُقَ َر‬
‫ِإنه َما ال ه‬
‫سبِي ِل ۔‬ ‫َّللا َواب ِْن ال ه‬ِ ‫سبِي ِل ه‬
َ ‫َار ِمينَ َوفِي‬ ِ ‫َو ْالغ‬
 Fuqara (The destitute): Have some money but not sufficient to meet
their needs
 Masakin (The poor): very miserable
 Amilina-alaiha (Those who are deputed to collect Zakat)
 Muallafat-ul-qulub: Those whose heart are to be won over
 Fir-riqa (for the ransoming of slaves)
 Al-Gharimin (For relieving one from the harden of Debt)
 Fi-Sabillah: (In cause of Allah):
 Ibn-us-Sabil: (for the hospitality of the wayfarers)
Impacts of Zakat on Human Life:

 Spiritual Impacts  Moral Impacts:

 Zakat Removes Greed
 ShieldAgainst Crime
 Zakat Removes Loves of
Materialisms  Zakat Creates

 ‫َحب الدنياء راس الخبائث‬ Generosity

 Zakat Brings man Closer to  Zakat purifies heart
God and Property
 Humanitarian Spirit
Impacts of Zakat on Human Life: Social
 Individual Welfare lies in Collective Welfare:
 Zakat inculcates the spirit of social welfare
 Co-operation
 Defence of Religion
 Distribution of Wealth
 Balanced Ideology: (In Tussle of Capitalism and Communism)

 Fourth Pillar of Islam

 Saum literally means to be at rest.

 َ ُ‫ِين ِمن ََ ْب ِل ُك ْم لَعَلَّ ُك ْم تَت َّق‬

‫ون‬ َ ‫علَ الَّذ‬ ِ ‫علَ ْي ُك ُم‬
َ ِ‫الصيَا ُم َك َما ُكت‬
َ ‫ب‬ َ ‫ب‬ َ ‫يَا أَيُّ َها الَّذ‬
َ ِ‫ِين آ َمنُوا ُكت‬
 O Believers, the Fast has been made obligatory on you just as it
was prescribed for the followers of the Prophets before you. It is
expected that this will produce piety in you. (2:183)

 The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, "When the month of Ramadan

starts, the gates of the heaven are opened and the gates of Hell
are closed and the devils are chained." (Imam Bukhari)
Impacts of Fasting On Human Life

 Spiritual Impacts:  Moral Impacts:

 Dicipline and Self-  Building moral Character
Control  Fasting control Passion
 Attainment of Piety  Fasting Destroys the
 Obedience to God Pride of Man
 Closeness to God  Fasting Increase Moral
 Fasting Infuses spirit of Resistance of Man
 Shield against Sin
 Immunity from Hypocrisy
 Humanitarian Spirit
Impacts of Fasting On Society: Social
 Brotherhood and sympathy

 Social Congregation: At the time of Iftari and Tarawih

 Social Unity: Muslims from every walk of life fast together.

 Economic Benefits: Riches spent more money on poor in

Hajj (Pilgrimage)

 Fifth and Last pillar of Islam

 The literal meaning of Hajj in Arabic is “to go out towards a
definite objective”
 In Islamic Jurisdiction, its means “to set out for the Ka’bah. It
also means pilgrimage(a journey to a sacred Place).
 Upon Whom Hajj is Compulsory:

‫س ا‬
ۚ ‫بيَل‬ َ ‫ع ِإلَي ِه‬
َ ‫ت َم ِن استَطا‬ ِ ‫علَى الن‬
ِ ‫اس َِح ُّج البَي‬ ِ ‫َو ِ ه‬
َ ‫ّلِل‬
And it is the duty of mankind toward Allah to make pilgrimage to
the House —for those who can afford the journey to it.
Impacts of Hajj on Human life: Spiritual and
Moral Impacts
 Closeness to God
 Inculcates spirit of Jihad
 Discipline
 Forgiveness of sins
 Remembrance of Death: Ihram is like shroud.
 Kissing of the Black Stone (Istelam) teaches the visitor to
honour the sunnah and not to oppose the laws of Allah
 Slaughters his sacrifice: Creates quality of unselfish concern
for the welfare of others
 Simplicity
 Hardworking
Impacts of Hajj on Human Society: Social Impacts

 Unity of Ummah

 Season of Awakening of Islamic World

 Manifestation of Strength of Islam

 Economic Benefits

 Educational Benefits

 Animation in Muslim world

 Centre of Real Equality

Questions From Past Papers
 Describe the importance and philosophy of prayer. Also
explain its individual and collective benefits. (2000)

 In the light of 'Inna-as-Salata-tanha-un-al-fahshai-wal-

munkir', Describe the advantages and effects of
prayer? (2012)

 While defining Zakat, examine its Socio-Economic

significance in Islamic Society. (2002)

 Islam pays a lot of stress on the circulation of money.

Describe in the light of Zakat system. (2008)
Questions From Past Papers
 In Islam the purpose of Zakat is purity of wealth, abolishing poverty,
hunger and ignorance but his has not been achieved yet. What pratical
steps are needed for attaining this end?(2009)

 All pillars of Islam have philosophy and purpose behind them. Pin point
fact with special reference to Hajj with its individual and collective
benefits. (2004)

 Define the doctrine of "Roza" and explain how to achieve the goals of
mutual co-operation and collective justice besides the purification of
individual soul through the application of this doctrine. (2007)

 Describe the importance and philosophy of Fasting (SAUM). Also

explain its individual and collective benefits? (2013)
Questions From Past Papers
 Write a comprehensive note on zakat system of Islam and its
spiritual, moral impacts and social impacts. (2018)
 ‫ اخَلقی اور معاشرتی‬، ‫اسَلم کے نظام زکواة اور اس کے روَحانی‬
‫اثرات پر ايک تفصيلی شذره سپرد قلم کريں۔‬

 Who are entitled to receive Zakat according to the Quran?

Elucidating social impact of Zakat, clarify how can poverty be
alleviated with its distribution in Islamic Society. (2017)
 ‫قرآن مجيد کے بيان کرده مصارف ذکواة کون کون سے ہيں؟‬
‫زکواة کے سماجی اثرات بيان کرتے ہوئے واضح کريں کہ اس‬
‫کی تقسيم سے اسَلمی معاشرے ميں غربت کو کيسے کم کيا‬