Service Oriented Architecture

Outline
‡ Service Oriented Society ‡ The connected world ‡ From Component Orientation to Service Orientation ‡ The Road to SOA
± Three key concepts in software construction

‡ Conclusion

What is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)?
‡ An SOA application is a composition of services ‡ A service is the atomic unit of an SOA ‡ Services encapsulate a business process ‡ Service Providers Register themselves ‡ Service use involves: Find, Bind, Execute ‡ Most well-known instance is Web Services
Service Registry

Find Service Consumer

Register Bind, Execute Service Provider

3

location transparent business service ‡ Service Registry ± Allows service consumers to locate service providers that meet required criteria ‡ Service Consumer ± Uses service providers to complete business processes 4 . Execute Service Provider ± Provides a stateless.SOA Actors ‡ Service Provider Service Registry Find Service Consumer Register Bind.

Execute Service Provider 5 .SOA Benefits Business Benefits ‡ Focus on Business Domain solutions ‡ Leverage Existing Infrastructure ‡ Agility Technical Benefits ‡ Loose Coupling ‡ Autonomous Service ‡ Location Transparency ‡ Late Binding Service Registry Find Service Consumer Register Bind.

cbdiforum.com/reports/protocols/ 6 .SOA/Web Services Related Standards Source: http://roadmap.

Carl Kesselman.html Service-Oriented Architecture: A Primer .org) The Physiology of the Grid . http://www.w3.org) The Globus Alliance ( http://www.globus. Steven Tuecke.com/lpt/a/ws/2003/09/30/soa.org/wsrf/ 7 .globus.ggf.http://www. http://www.pdf The Benefits of a Service-Oriented Architecture .bijonline.globus. Ian Foster. http://www. Michael Stevens. Nick. Ian Foster.xml. Pallos.org/2002/ws/ Grid Computing Global Grid Forum (http://www. http://www.Service Oriented Architecture What is Service-Oriented Architecture? .com/PDF/SOAPallos.org/research/papers/ogsa.com/design/article.pdf Web Services Resource Framework .org/research/papers/anatomy. Michael S.http://www. Steven Tuecke. Jeffrey M. http://webservices.globus. Carl Kesselman.pdf The Anatomy of the Grid .developer.php/1041191 Web Services Specifications . Hao He.

The Service Oriented Society Imagine if we had to do everything we need to get done by ourselves? .

From Craftsmen to Service Providers ‡ Our society has become what it is today through the forces of ± Specialization ± Standardization ± Scalability ‡ It is now almost exclusively service oriented ± ± ± ± ± ± Transportation Telecommunication Retail Healthcare Financial services .

somewhat standardized interface Self-contained with no visible dependencies to other services (almost) Always available but idle until requests come Provision-able Easily accessible and usable readily. ± but a service can have a context ‡ New services can be offered by combining existing services ‡ Quantifiable quality of service ± Do not compete on What but How ± Performance/Quality ± Cost ± . no integration required Coarse grain Independent of consumer context. easy-to-use.Attributes of physical services ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Well defined.

e. . composing services ± Book a trip versus book a flight. car. i. Composition and State ‡ Services are most often designed to ignore the context in which they are used ± It does not mean that services are stateless they are rather context independent ! ± This is precisely my / the definition of loosely coupled ‡ Services can be reused in contexts not known at design time ‡ Value can be created by combining. hotel.Context.

Service Interfaces ‡ Non proprietary ± All service providers offer somewhat the same interface ‡ Highly Polymorphic ± Intent is enough ‡ Implementation can be changed in ways that do not break all the service consumers ± Real world services interact with thousands of consumers ± Service providers cannot afford to break the context of their consumers .

Intents and Offers ‡ Service consumer expresses intent ‡ Service providers define offers ‡ Sometimes a mediator will: ± Find the best offer matching an intent ± Advertise an offer in different ways such that it matches different intent ‡ Request / Response is just a very particular case of an Intent / Offer protocol .

phone or fax number? .Service Orientation and Directories ‡ Our society could not be service oriented without the Yellow Pages ‡ Directories and addressing mechanisms are at the center of our service oriented society ‡ Imagine ± Being able to reach a service just by using longitude and latitude coordinates as an addressing mechanism? ± Only being able to use a service if you can remember its location.

Service Orientation is scalable ‡ Consumers can consume and combine a lot of services since they don t have to know or learn how to use a service ‡ Service providers can offer their services to a lot more consumers because by optimizing ± The user interface ± Access (Geographical. Financial. ) ± They were able to provide the best quality of service and optimize their implementations .

So ‡ Service orientation allows us ± Complete freedom to create contexts in which services are uses and combined ± Express intent rather than specific requests ‡ Our society should be a great source of inspiration to design modern enterprise systems and architectures or understand what kind of services these systems will consume or provide .

everything got connected to everything else .The connected (new) world Over the past 15 years.

Connectivity Drives the Emergence and Convergence of Technologies Internet 1980 LAN Web 1990 XML WS 2000 SOA 2010 Office Workflow EAI BPM B2B EDI WS Mainframe Client / Server Web/Portal J2EE .NET Business Integration ? .

Connectivity Enables Global Processes and Information Access Internet 1980 LAN LAN Web 1990 WAN XML WS 2000 Web SOA 2010 Information Local Business Processes Global .

Storage. Bandwidth ) . forget about ± Installation ± Implementation ± Training ± Maintenance ‡ Scalable and effective usage of resources ± Provision ± Billed on true usage ± Parallelism (CPU.Seamless Connectivity enables On Demand Computing ‡ Use software as you need ‡ Much lower setup time.

But Seamless Connectivity is also questioning all our beliefs ‡ An application is NOT a single system running on a single device and bounded by a single organization ‡ Continuum Object Document ‡ Messages and Services ± As opposed « distributed objects » ± Exchanges becomes peer-to-peer ‡ Asynchronous communications ‡ Concurrency becomes the norm while our languages and infrastructures did not plan for it .

we are reaching the point of maximum confusion ‡ Federation and Collaboration ± As opposed to « Integration » ‡ Language(s) ± Semantic (not syntactic) ± Declarative and Model driven (not procedural) ‡ Licensing and Deployment models ‡ .

So ‡ Today. the value is not defined as much by functionality anymore but by connectivity ± However. we need a new programming model ‡ Why SOA today? ± We are reaching a new threshold of connectivity and computing power Mainframe Client Server Web SOA .

Constructing Software In a Connected World From Components to Services .

Constructing software in the web era (J2EE. ) View request response Client Internet b2b Controller CCI App Server CCI CCI EAI ERP Model DB ERP CRM CCI: Client Communication Interface .Net. .

I now want my application to execute business logic in many other systems. often dynamically bound to me ± JCA (J2EE Connector Architecture) is not enough ± EAI infrastructures are not enough . for instance was designed to build 24x7 scalable webbased applications ± Job well done ‡ But this is very different from.Why do we Want to Move to a New Application Model Today? ‡ We are moving away precisely because of connectivity ± J2EE.

A Component now Becomes a Service Running Outside the Consumer Boundaries Consumer 3 XML XML invoke Policies XML Registry Discover and/or Bind 2 SOAP CCI SOAP CCI SOAP CCI 1 register DB ERP CRM Service Service Service .

From Components to (Web) Services ‡ Requires a client library ‡ Loose coupling via ± Message exchanges ± Policies ‡ Client / Server ‡ Extendable ‡ Stateless ‡ Fast ‡ Small to medium granularity ‡ Peer-to-peer ‡ Composable ‡ Context independent ‡ Some overhead ‡ Medium to coarse granularity .

Web Services: what is changing? ‡ Loose coupling (of course) ± Web Services don t require a CCI (Client side Communication Interface) ‡ Very few gears needed to consume a service ± Web Services can accept message content they do not fully understand or support ‡ XML. WSDL ± Web services are very late bound ‡ Location is independent of the invocation mechanism ‡ Directories .

it is difficult to differentiate a client from a server .Web Services: What is Changing? ‡ Peer-to-peer interactions are possible ± Request / response is an inefficient and very limiting mode of interaction ± As components coarsen.

What Happens to the Technical Services Typically Provided by an Application Server? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Transaction Security Connection pooling Naming service Scalability and failover ‡ They become the Service Fabric .

What about the notion of Container ? They become Service Domains ‡ The notion of container shifts to the notion of Domain Controller ± A domain is a collection of web services which share some commonalities like a secure domain ± A container is a domain with one web service ± Web Services do not always need a container ‡ Consumers invoke the domain rather than the service directly ‡ This concept does not exist in any specification .

A Service Fabric can be more than a Bus with a series of Containers / Adapters Consumer Discover and/or Bind Policies TxXML Domain Controller Reliable Messaging XML XML Process Registry Registry CCI CCI CCI register DB ERP CRM NEP NEP NEP .

) and data access NEP NEP Coordination logic (Tx.The road to SOA NEP NEP Existing business logic. often model-oriented Global business logic (tax. trade. Process. ) Metadata driven User Interface NEPs NEP NEP NEP NEP .

Shift To A Service-Oriented Architecture From ‡ ‡ ‡ To ‡ ‡ ‡ Function oriented Build to last Prolonged development cycles Coordination oriented Build to change Incrementally built and deployed Application silos  Tightly coupled  Object oriented  Known implementation  Enterprise solutions  Loosely coupled  Message oriented  Abstraction  Source: Microsoft (Modified) .

So Migrating to SOA ‡ Would entail ± Organizing the business logic in a context independent way ‡ Typically. model oriented business logic is wrapped behind (web) services ‡ Re-implementing the controller with coordination technologies ‡ The view must be completely re-invented .