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Rafts, Sailboats, Ships, & Hydrofoils
Planes, Passenger Jets, Helicopters

Blowing on paper
Buoyancy Kit (tin foil, washers)
Cartesian Diver
Blower and Ping Pong
Sailboat and Track

Early Boats
 Hollowed out
 Reed rafts


Pronounced: \pē-rōg\

Redwood Grove, Los Altos

Overcoming Gravity

Gravity acts the same on all

objects - exerts greater forces on
larger masses and smaller forces
on less massive objects such that
the downward acceleration is the
same for all objects
Objects suspended in
fluids (air and water)
Buoyancy Force counteracts
the weight of the object:

mg = Fbuoyancy

Fluids exert pressure
Atmosphere at sea level exerts
14.7 psi (lbs/in2) in all directions
due to gravity pulling down on the
column of air above our heads.

Pressure decreases at higher


Water not moving

Water not moving

Forces due to pressure = Net Buoyant Force

Net Buoyant Force = Weight of water
Replace water with object

Forces due to pressure have not changed

Net Buoyant Force = Weight of water displaced9
If weight of object < Fb (object rises)
If weight of object > Fb (object sinks)

Archimedes and Buoyancy
i.e. some things fall “up”!

 Before Archimedes Principle

states that the
discovering the Lever
buoyant force on a
and the Screw for submerged object is
lifting water, equal to the weight of
Archimedes the fluid that is
discovered displaced by the
buoyancy. object.
This Concept is best seen
with Hot Air or Helium
The balloon
rises because
the weight of the
gondola, and the
internal gas is
less than the air
displaced by the
This is called
What would you weigh if fully
submerged in water?
 (Your weight – the wt. of the water displaced)

What figure weighs

more in the pool?

100 lbs. 100 lbs.

Cartesian Diver
 By squeezing the bottle
the pressure increases.
The air in the condiment
package compresses,
lowering its volume.
 Less water is displaced if
the condiment package is
compressed, making the
package less buoyant.
Water going vessels can be very
heavy as long as they displace
enough water
 The vessel will float
if it displaces water
equal to the weight of
the boat (including
cargo). It must do this
without taking water over
the sides

The Ice Breaker – has an armored steel hull
Materials that are denser than water such as steel can be
made to float on water as long as the steel object can
displace an amount of water equal to its weight.

Many Civil Engineering

programs build and
compete in a Concrete
Canoe event.
Three similar sized pieces of tin

 One floats
 One sinks
 One appears suspended

What’s the difference between them?

The Accepted Anthropological
Map Showing Migration of Homo
Drawbacks with
Exploration Over Land

 Restricted by Land (a small percentage of

our planet – 29%)
 Terrain constraints (mountains, deserts,
 Enemies
 Reliance on stock animals
 High maintenance wagons
Benefits and Challenges with
Exploration over Water

 Greater mobility
 Riskier
 Powered by Wind
 Density of salt water allows large vessels to
 Navigation is difficult
 Usually capital Intensive
Propelling Boats and Aircraft

 Oars – for every force

there is an equal and
opposite force.
 Action-Reaction
 Sails
 Propellers
 Airfoils
Propellers are Fans

 Airplane
wings exert a
force on the
air. The air
pushes up on
the wing with
an equal force.
Umbrella Animation
 A surface designed to produce lift from
the movement of air over it.

It is the Coanda Effect that

gives the fluid the tendency to
follow the contour of the upper
surface rather than traveling in
a straight line.
The Coanda Effect
Fluid flow

Newton’s 3rd law

indicates that the
fluid forces the
object to the right
as it travels along
the surface to the
Getting Lift with Airplanes

LIFT: Vertical force

DRAG: Horizontal force

Lift comes from the air around the wing
A really good explanation. that is diverted downward.
A much more detailed explanation.
Would this Airfoil Produce

Yes, but drag force is


The four forces
 Lift
 Drag
 Weight
 Thrust
Sailing on a Tack (against the
Sailboat Demonstration
 Blow air at a 450 angle of attack to
show that the pulling force is greater than
the pushing force, producing a net force in
the windward direction
Good Animation of Sails and angle of attack
As air moves faster its pressure
 Throwing a curve ball as
demonstrated by a good
 Shower Curtain problem
 Blowing air across paper
to make is rise
 Blow Dryer and ping
pong trick
Propellers have the shape of
Forces from Ailerons and
 A lowered Aileron
produces Lift, while
a raised Aileron
reduces Lift. The
two Ailerons make A good animation here.

the aircraft roll.

 Elevators are at the
rear and control the
Plane Components
 Hydrofoils are
used to ferry
people across
the English
The hydrofoils produce
lift, raising the boat out
of the water. Once
above the surface, the
boat can skim over the
top as it is relatively Surface Piercing Foil follows
unaffected by waves. the contours of the waves.
The hydrofoil in inherently stable because when it
leans to one side more of the foil on the low side is
submerged, increasing the lift on that side. Thus the
boat ‘rights’ itself.
Also this hydrofoil follows the contours of the waves.
When it travels into a wave, more the foil goes
underwater giving the boat greater lift. When it
travels out of a wave, less of the foil is underwater,
therefore the lift decreases.
How do spacecraft maneuver in the
absence of air?
 Newton’s 3rd Law
 High Pressure Fuel Exerts a force on one side of
rocket while being released out the back.