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 The challenge of leadership is to be

strong, but not rude; be kind, but not

weak; be bold, but not bully; be
thoughtful, but not lazy; be humble, but
not timid; be proud, but not arrogant;
have humor, but without folly.
~Jim Rohn~
1. The ability to persuade others to achieve specific
objectives with great interest. It is the human factor that
combines a group and drove them towards a specific
purpose (Gary, 1971)

2. Ability as a leader based on personal qualities, to win

followers of voluntary compliance in a wide
range of matters (Etzioni, 1965)

3. Any individual behavior on a regular

basis stimulates the behavior of a
 A leader is "a person who influences a group of people
towards the achievement of a goal". A mnemonic for this
definition would be 3P's - Person, People and Purpose as
illustrated by the following diagram.

Leadership is a process whereby

an individual influences a group
of individuals to achieve a
common goal
 Itis the process of assuring that the
program and objectives of the
organizations are implemented as
—Douglas MacArthur
- Provide vision and motivates people;
- Goal-oriented

- Make sure things happen through
other people;
 Making sure the work is done by
others is the accomplishment of a

 Inspiring
others to do better work is the
accomplishment of a LEADER.
 Leader managers are long-term
thinkers who see beyond the day’s
crisis and the quarterly report;

 Theyconstantly reaching beyond their

specific area of influence
Are leaders born?
Traits of a leading LEADER:
1. Is born with leadership qualities;
2. Has seen leadership modeled
throughout life;
3. Has learned added leadership
through training;
4. Has self-discipline to become a great
Leaders aren’t born, they are
made. And they are made just like
anything else, through hard work.
And that’s the price we’ll have to
pay to achieve that goal, or any
—Vince Lombardi
 Level 1: Position or title; people follow because
they have to (Rights).
 Level 2: Permission; people follow because
they want to (Relationships).
 Level 3: Production; people follow because of
what you have done for the
organization (Results).
 Level 4: Personnel Development: People follow
because of what you have done for
them (Reproduction).
 Level 5: Personhood; People follow because of
who you are and what you represent
 The key to leadership: Priorities;
 The most important ingredient of
leadership: Integrity;
 The ultimate test of leadership:
Creating positive change;
 The indispensable quality of
leadership: Vision;
 The price tag of leadership: Self-
 The most important lesson I’ve learned
about leadership: Staff development.
 Lewin's Leadership Styles
 Psychologist Kurt Lewin developed his framework in the 1930s, and it
provided the foundation of many of the approaches that followed
afterwards. He argued that there are three major styles of

 Autocratic leaders make decisions without consulting their

team members, even if their input would be useful. This can be
appropriate when you need to make decisions quickly, when
there's no need for team input, and when team agreement isn't
necessary for a successful outcome. However, this style can be
demoralizing, and it can lead to high levels of absenteeism and
staff turnover.

 Democratic leaders make the final decisions, but they include

team members in the decision-making process. They encourage
creativity, and people are often highly engaged in projects and
decisions. As a result, team members tend to have high job
satisfaction and high productivity. This is not always an effective
style to use, though, when you need to make a quick decision.
 Laissez-faire leaders give their team members a lot of freedom in
how they do their work, and how they set their deadlines. They
provide support with resources and advice if needed, but otherwise
they don't get involved. This autonomy can lead to high job
satisfaction, but it can be damaging if team members don't
manage their time well, or if they don't have the knowledge, skills, or
self motivation to do their work effectively. (Laissez-faire leadership
can also occur when managers don't have control over their work
and their people.)

 Transformational Leadership
› Transformational leaders have integrity and high emotional intelligence.
They motivate people with a shared vision of the future, and they
communicate well. They're also typically self-aware, authentic,
empathetic, and humble.

› Transformational leaders inspire their team members because they

expect the best from everyone, and they hold themselves accountable
for their actions. They set clear goals, and they have good conflict-
resolution. This leads to high productivity and engagement.
› Is ensuring that all activities undertaken on
site run smoothly and well managed.
› It is intended to serve as a guideline to
corrective action, the control also includes a
record of any experience for the purpose of
improving management performance in the
 Project Execution Phase is the third phase in the
project life cycle. In this phase, you will build
the physical project deliverables and present
them to your customer for signoff.
 The Project Execution Phase is usually the
longest phase in the project life cycle and it
typically consumes the most energy and the
most resources.
 To enable you to monitor and control the
project during this phase, you will need to
implement a range of management processes.
These processes help you to manage time,
cost, quality, change, risks and issues. They also
help you to manage procurement, customer
acceptance and communications.
 Satu tindakan yang dibuat untuk
memastikan apa yang dirancang terjadi

 Pengurus mesti jelas kehendak organisasi

 Pengurus mesti menyemak kembali

sama ada pencapaian memenuhi
matlamat atau tidak
Time Cost Quality

Issue Procurement Communications

 Time Management is all about recording
the time spent by people on a project.
 The time process helps the manager
know which tasks has been worked on,
when and for how long.
 The time process allows you to see for
every task, whether is has been
completed on time.
 A Cost Management process helps you
control expenses within an organization.
 By controlling project quality it is possible to confirm that the product
is complete and developed in line with expectations. Quality control
involves business and technical staff in a range of activities such as
defining technical standards, setting business expectations,
establishing product requirements, others.
 Here’s a list of the key tasks a project manager needs to perform to
control quality:
• Create a quality review schedule that defines timing for controlling a given stage
• Develop an agenda that determines key tasks of people involved in the control
• Assign reviewers who will perform stage quality control, including stage objectives,
products, commitments, roles, responsibilities etc.
• Allocate other roles such as Facilitator (who ensures adherence to the agenda and
appropriate follow-up) and Author (who provides all necessary information and
takes approved corrective actions after the control process finishes)
• Document and record all actions and decisions taken throughout the control
• Ensure that appropriate follow-up actions are taken
• Notify stakeholders of project status after the control process is done
 Project manager needs to manage issues in order to
ensure that the project is carried out as planned.
Here’re broad tasks the manager can do to manage
• Identify and record issues affecting the project
• Create an issue log that specifies the issues including their
description, type, priority, assigned personnel, status, etc.
• Assess impact of the issues on the scope, schedule and
• Determine how the issues might be resolved
• Review, correct and accept recommendations regarding
managing the issues
• Execute the resolution
• Monitor progress on issues
 The goal of controlling changes is to define and implement the
addition of work into a given stage. By effectively responding to
changes the project manager is able to ensure that the scope,
schedule and cost remain relevant to current situation.

 Here’s a general to-do list a project manager needs to complete

when requesting and responding to changes:
› Receive and review change requests which provide a description of the proposed
change with priority
› Assign change requests to competent team members who must investigate
alternative solutions
› Review and approve/cancel alternative solutions and then update change
requests accordingly
› Approve updated change requests
› Create an action plan for implementing the changes
› Define implementation time for each change
› Monitor progress and quality on the changes
› Enables the changes to completed products
 Conducting a meeting enables a project
manager to accomplish these tasks important
to the control process:

› Review and (re)assign roles and responsibilities of the

› Provide executive direction of the project to the
› Notify of current status of project work, including
open issues.
› Provide guidance to the team.
› Make executable decisions regarding further actions
throughout the project.
› Establish and review success criteria.
 Many businesses develop strategic
planning within a short-term, medium-term
and long-term framework.
 Short-term usually involves processes that
show results within a year.
 Companies aim medium-term plans at
results that take several years to achieve.
 Long-term plans include the overall goals of
the company set four or five years in the
future and usually are based on reaching
the medium-term targets.
 Short-Term
› Short-term planning looks at the characteristics of the
company in the present and develops strategies for
improving them.
› Examples are the skills of the employees and their
› The condition of production equipment or product
quality problems are also short-term concerns.
› To address these issues, you put in place short-term
solutions to address problems. Employee training
courses, equipment servicing and quality fixes are
short-term solutions. These solutions set the stage for
addressing problems more comprehensively in the
longer term.
 Medium-term
› Medium-term planning applies more permanent
solutions to short-term problems.
› If training courses for employees solved problems in
the short term, companies schedule training
programs for the medium term.
› If there are quality issues, the medium-term response
is to revise and strengthen the company's quality
control program.
› Where a short-term response to equipment failure is
to repair the machine, a medium-term solution is to
arrange for a service contract. Medium-term
planning implements policies and procedures to
ensure that short-term problems don't recur.
 Long-Term
› In the long term, companies want to solve problems
permanently and to reach their overall targets.
› Long-term planning reacts to the competitive situation of
the company in its social, economic and political
environment and develops strategies for adapting and
influencing its position to achieve long-term goals.
› It examines major capital expenditures such as purchasing
equipment and facilities, and implements policies and
procedures that shape the company's profile to match
top management's ideas.
› When short-term and medium-term planning is successful,
long-term planning builds on those achievements to
preserve accomplishments and ensure continued