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Use of Water Resources
 Humans use about 54% of reliable runoff
United States
 Agriculture
 Industry cooling
 Domestic

 Power plants Industry 11%

Public 10%
Measures of Water Quality
 When is water contaminated the quality of water is
relative to its use. What may be considered as a
pollutant for a particular water use may be of
importance in another application.
 Dissolved Oxygen
 The oxygen dissolved in lakes, rivers, and oceans is
crucial for the organisms and creatures living in it. As
the amount of dissolved oxygen drops below normal
levels in water bodies, the water quality is harmed and
creatures begin to die off. Indeed, a water body can "die",
a process called eutrophication.
 Bacteriological Measurements
 Many pathogenic organisms can be carried
by water. The indicator most often used is a
group of microbes called coliforms. These
critters have (5) five important attributes:
 normal inhabitants of the digestive tracts of warm-
blooded animals
 plentiful, hence not difficult to find
 easily detected with a simple test
 generally harmless except in unusual circumstances
 hardy, surviving longer than most known pathogens
 1. There are many kinds of pathogens. Each pathogen has a
specific detection procedure and must be screened
 2. The concentration of these organisms can be so small as
to make their detection almost possible. Looking for the
pathogens in most surface waters is a perfect example of
the proverbial needle in a haystack. Yet only one or two
organisms in the water might be sufficient to cause an
infection if this water is consumed.
Common Measures of Water
 Chemical/physical measures
 Physical measurements include heat, suspended
solids, colour and clarity, and acidity or alkalinity (pH).
 Chemical contaminants include nutrients,
hydrocarbons, pesticides, organic wastes, metals,
cations, and anions. The properties of chemical
contaminants and their effects vary widely. Some effects
are immediate and readily observable, such as oil spills,
toxic effects for humans, or stock or aquatic biota. Other
effects may be ongoing and insidious, such as the
accumulation of persistent compounds in the food
 Biological measures
 Microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses and
protozoa, can cause diseases in humans and in stock.
Because the disease-causing organisms are often
difficult to measure directly, an indicator is usually
measured, such as E. coli for freshwater, or enterococci
for marine water.
 Macroinvertebrates are useful measures of water
quality because the composition of species present at a
site can be used as an indicator of water quality.
 Periphyton can also be a useful indicator of water
quality because the composition of species and total
biomass can reflect water quality.
 Water on the surface of the earth that is exposed to the
atmosphere is called surface water. Surface waters
include rivers, lakes, oceans, and other open bodies of
water. Through the process of percolation, some
surface water (especially during a precipitation event)
percolates into the ground and becomes groundwater.
Both groundwater and surface water can be used as
source of water for communities.
 Groundwater supplies
 Groundwater is both an important direct source of water
supply and a significant indirect source of supply since a
large portion of a flow to stream is derived from
subsurface water. Near the surface of the earth is the
zone of aeration, soil pore space contain both air and
 Surface water supplies
 Surface water supplies are not reliable as groundwater
sources because quantities often fluctuate widely during
the course of a year or even a week, and the quality of
surface water is easily degraded by various sources of
pollution. The variation in the river or stream flow can
be so great that even a small demand cannot be met
during dry periods and storage facilities must be
constructed to hold the water during wet periods so it
can be saved for dry ones.
 Water Intake
 Raw water from the river is delivered to the water
treatment facility. It is an important process in which
begins by passing the water through the bar screens
which removes larger debris such as logs and large
 Screening
 Located at the end of the raw water basins are automatic
screens that remove smaller debris such as twigs and
smaller leaves. These screens are the final step in the
pre- treatment process and the water is now ready for
the first stage of the primary treatment.
 Coagulation and Flocculation
 This process helps removes particles suspended in water.
Chemicals are added to water to form tiny sticky
particles called "floc" which attract the particles. Rapid
mixing ensures that the chemicals are evenly dispersed
throughout the water. Small amounts of lime (calcium
hydroxide) or sodium hydroxide are added to make the
water less corrosive to pipes and plumbing
 Sedimentation and Filtration
 The heavy particles (floc) settle to the bottom and the
clear water moves to filtration. The water passes through
filters, some made of layers of sand, gravel, and charcoal
that help remove even smaller particles.
 Sedimentation and Filtration
 It is the process of passing water through layers of sand
and carbon to remove undesirable particles, commonly
referred to as turbidity. Turbidity removal is extremely
important because particles in the water can interfere
with the disinfection process. The filters are capable of
greatly reducing the number of unsettled particles.
 Disinfection
 A small amount of chlorine is added or some other
disinfection method is used to kill any bacteria or
microorganisms that may be in the water. Chlorine is
added to reduce risks from remaining bacteria and other
disease-causing organisms and to maintain water quality
through the distribution pipe system distribution pipe
system. Fluoride is added to provide dental benefits.
 We consider wastewater treatment as a water use because it
is so interconnected with the other uses of water. Much of
the water used by homes, industries, and businesses must
be treated before it is released back to the environment.
 If the term "wastewater treatment" is confusing to you, you
might think of it as "sewage treatment." Nature has an
amazing ability to cope with small amounts of water wastes
and pollution, but it would be overwhelmed if we didn't
treat the billions of gallons of wastewater and sewage
produced every day before releasing it back to the
environment. Treatment plants reduce pollutants in
wastewater to a level nature can handle
 Wastewater is used water. It includes substances such
as human waste, food scraps, oils, soaps and
chemicals. In homes, this includes water from sinks,
showers, bathtubs, toilets, washing machines and
dishwashers. Businesses and industries also contribute
their share of used water that must be cleaned.
 Wastewater also includes storm runoff. Although some
people assume that the rain that runs down the street
during a storm is fairly clean, it isn't. Harmful
substances that wash off roads, parking lots, and
rooftops can harm our rivers and lakes.
Why Treat Wastewater?
 Fisheries
 Clean water is critical to plants and animals that live in water.
This is important to the fishing industry, sport fishing
enthusiasts, and future generations.
 Wildlife Habitats
 Our rivers and ocean waters teem with life that depends on
shoreline, beaches and marshes. They are critical habitats for
hundreds of species of fish and other aquatic life. Migratory
water birds use the areas for resting and feeding.
 Recreation and Quality of Life
 Water is a great playground for us all. The scenic and
recreational values of our waters are reasons many people choose
to live where they do. Visitors are drawn to water activities such
as swimming, fishing, boating and picnicking.
 Health Concerns
 If it is not properly cleaned, water can carry disease. Since
we live, work and play so close to water, harmful bacteria
have to be removed to make water safe.
 Effects of wastewater pollutants
 If wastewater is not properly treated, then the environment
and human health can be negatively impacted. These
impacts can include harm to fish and wildlife populations,
oxygen depletion, beach closures and other restrictions on
recreational water use, restrictions on fish and shellfish
harvesting and contamination of drinking water.
 decaying organic matter and debris can use up the
dissolved oxygen in a lake so fish and other aquatic
biota cannot survive;
 excessive nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen
(including ammonia), can cause eutrophication, or
over-fertilization of receiving waters, which can be
toxic to aquatic organisms, promote excessive plant
growth, reduce available oxygen, harm spawning
grounds, alter habitat and lead to a decline in certain
 chlorine compounds and inorganic chloramines can
be toxic to aquatic invertebrates, algae and fish;
 bacteria, viruses and disease-causing pathogens can
pollute beaches and contaminate shellfish
populations, leading to restrictions on human
recreation, drinking water consumption and shellfish
 metals, such as mercury, lead, cadmium, chromium
and arsenic can have acute and chronic toxic effects
on species.
 other substances such as some pharmaceutical and
personal care products, primarily entering the
environment in wastewater effluents, may also pose
threats to human health, aquatic life and wildlife.
 Water scarcity is the major problem that is faced all across
the world. Although 2/3rd of the earth's crust is made up of
water but all this water is not available for drinking and for
other human activities as either it is locked in the form of
ice or present in the form of vast saline oceans and seas. It
has been found out that 97% of the total water is salty that
is of no use to human and animals (except marine animal)
and the remaining three percent is available as freshwater.
More than half of this three percent is locked in glacier and
less than 0.01% is available as fresh water. So water
resources are less as compare to human demand for water.
Problem of Water Crisis
 Water crisis at present is the biggest problem according to the
United Nations. Almost 25 countries of Africa, parts of China,
Peru and Brazil in Latin America, some parts of Middle east
like Iran, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay are some of the countries
that are facing the water crisis. Even other parts of the world
are facing the varied levels of the water crisis. The demands
for the dire need of wastewater treatment.
 Because of acute shortage of water, the food problems are
getting aggravated. About 40 million people in Africa are
facing the problem of food shortage. It is expected that if the
similar conditions will persist then there will be 500 million
till 2025 who will suffer from these problems.
Give Life to Aquatic Animals and
 The wastewater that is polluted by human activities if
without treatment is poured into the freshwater
resources that ultimately mingles into marine water will
definitely going to affect the water and marine life in it.
Because of pollution, the oxygen level drops in the
water. So less oxygen will be available to the aquatic life
and because of this there will be less growth. Moreover
it has been found that some species have even become
the distinct species because of rising water pollution.
Wastewater Treatment
 Waste Water Transport
 Waste Water – discharged from homes, commercial
establishments, and industrial plants by means of
sanitary sewers, usually large pipes flowing partially
full (not under pressure) converge to a central point
where the waste flows by trunk sewers to the
wastewater treatment plant.
Factors that Affect the Operation of
the Wastewater Treatment Plant

 Inflows- additional
flow to the wastewater
sewer from the storm
water that seeps
through the manhole
covers and broken
 Infiltration- sewers that installed below the
groundwater table and any breaks or cracks in the
sewer can result in water seeping into the sewers.
 A typical wastewater treatment plant is divided into five main
 Preliminary treatment- removal of large solids to prevent
damage to the remainder of the unit of the operations.
 Secondary Treatment- removal of the demand for oxygen.
These processes are commonly biological in nature.
 Primary Treatment- removal of solids by settling. Primary
treatment systems usually physical processes, as opposed to
biological or chemical.
 Tertiary Treatment- a name applied to any number f polishing
or clean-up process, one which is the removal of nutrients such
as phosphorous. These processes can be physical, biological or
 Solids Treatment and disposal- the collection, stabilization,
and subsequent disposal of the solids removed by other
Preliminary Treatment
 Screens- used as the first step in treatment plants. It is
used to remove materials that might damage
equipment or hinder further treatment.
 Comminutor- a circular grinder designed to grind the
solids coming through the screen into pieces about 0.3
cm (1/8in.) or smaller.
 Grit Chamber- a wide place in the channel where the
flow is slowed down sufficiently to allow the heavy grit
to settle out.
 Settling or Clarification- following the grit chamber
most water treatment plants have a settling tank to settle
out as much of the solid matter as possible.
 Settling Tank- also known as the sedimentation tank or
Secondary Treatment
 The water leaving the primary clarifier has lost
much of the suspended organic matter but still
contains a high demand for oxygen due to the
dissolved organics that is, it is composed of high
energy molecules that will decompose by microbial
action, creating a biochemical oxygen demand.
This demand for oxygen must be reduced if the
discharge is not to create unacceptable conditions
in the water course.
 Fixed Film Reactor
 Trickling Filter- consist of a filter bed of fist-size
rocks over which the waste is trickled.
 Suspended Growth Reactors
 Activated sludge System- air is bubbled into this tank
(called the aeration tank) to provide the necessary
oxygen for the survival of the aerobic organisms.
 Gas Transfer
The process of allowing any gas to dissolve in a
fluid or the opposite of that, promoting the release of a
dissolve gas from a fluid, the same mechanism used to
describe how oxygen is driven into the liquid in an
activated sludge aeration tank.
 Solids Separation
 Chlorination- it disinfect the effluents to reduce the
possibility of desease transmission.
That’s All…
Thanks You!