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# EQUIVALENT FRAME METHOD

## By: Noble, Danzelle Joy

Dumot, Kristine Joy
Equivalent Frame Method
In this method, a three-dimensional
building is divided into a series of two-
dimensional equivalent frames by cutting the
building along lines midway between columns.
The resulting frames are considered separately
in the longitudinal and transverse directions of
the building and treated floor by floor.
Equivalent Frame Method
EFM involves the elastic analysis of a structural
frame consisting of a row of equivalent columns
and horizontal slab members that are each one
panel long and have a transverse width equal to
the distance between centerlines of the panels
on each side of the columns
Consider a 3D structure shown. It is intended to transform this
3D system into 2D system for facilitating analysis. This can be
done by using the transformation technique called
EQUIVALENT FRAME METHOD.
Interior 3D frame is detached from structure.
A 3D frame is converted to a 2D frame by taking
effect of stiffness of laterally present members.
(slabs and beams)
• 𝐾𝑠𝑏 represents the combined stiffness of slab and
longitudinal beam (if any)
• 𝐾𝑒𝑐 represents the modified column stiffness.
The modification depends on the lateral
members (slab, beams, etc) and presence of
column in the storey above
SLAB-BEAMS
When determining the stiffness of slab-
beam members, it is permitted to
determine the moment of inertia at any
cross-section outside of the joints or
column capitals, using the gross area of the
concrete.
The stiffness of the slab-beams 𝐾𝑠𝑏 can be determined
from the following equation,

## 𝐾𝐴𝐵 𝐸𝑐𝑠 𝐼𝑠𝑏

𝐾𝑠𝑏 =
ℓ1
Where;
𝐾𝐴𝐵 = is the stiffness factor that takes into account the
stepwise variation in the moment of inertia over the span
𝐼𝑆𝐵 = is the moment of inertia of the slab-beam away from
the support, which in case the moment of inertia of the
ℓh3
slab 𝐼𝑆𝐵 = 𝐼𝑆 =
12
𝐸𝑐𝑠 = modulus of elsticity of slab concrete, MPa
DETERMINING 𝐾𝑒𝑐
COLUMNS
Similar to slab-beams, the stiffness of a
column is based on the moment of inertia
at any cross section outside of the joints or
column capitals using the gross area of
concrete. The length of the column from
the mid-depth of the slab above to that of
the slab below is to be used in the
calculation of the stiffness.
The stiffness of the column 𝐾𝑒𝑐 can be determined from the
following equation,

𝐾𝐴𝐵 𝐸𝑐𝑐 𝐼𝑐
𝐾𝑒𝑐 =
L𝑐
Where;
𝐿𝑐 =Length of the column from the mid-depth of the slab
above to that of the slab below.
• For Flat Slab without Drop Panels, The table
contains moment distribution constants for
columns in a flat plate where the thicknesses of
the slab above and below the column are equal.
• For Slab with Drop Panels, The table contains
moment distribution constants for columns in a
flat plate where the thicknesses of the slab above
and below the column are equal and the overall
thickness of the drop panel is 125% of the slab
thickness.
TORSIONAL MEMBERS
• Torsional members provide moment transfer between the slab beams and
the columns and are assumed to have a constant cross-section throughout
their length. Two conditions are specified, depending on the framing
members:
1. No transverse beams frame into the columns
In such cases, the transverse member consists of a portion of the s
lab having a width equal to that of the column, bracket, or capital in t
he direction of analysis
2. Transverse beams frame into the columns
For monolithical construction, T or L beam action is assumed, with
the flanges extending o each side of the beam a distance equal to t
he projection of the beam above or below the slab but not greater t
han four times the thickness of the slab
DETERMINING Kt
• The stiffness of the torsional member Kt is calculated by the following
approximate expression,
9𝐸𝑐𝑠 𝐶
𝐾𝑡 = ෍
ℓ2 (1−(𝑐2 /ℓ2 ))3
• The constant C is determined by subdividing the cross section into
rectangles and carrying out the following summation
𝑥 𝑥3𝑦
𝐶 = ෍(1 − 0.63 )
𝑦 3
Where x is the shorter side of the rectangle and y is the longer side.
EQUIVALENT COLUMN
• Stiffness of the equivalent column 𝐾𝑒𝑐 is a
combination of the stiffnesses of the column s
and torsional members:

1 1 1
= +
𝐾𝑒𝑐 σ 𝐾𝑐 ‫𝑎𝑡𝐾 ׬‬
DISTRIBUTION FACTORS
• Distribution factors are used in the moment distribution
procedure to obtain bending moments in the slab beams.
The figure shown is used to illustrate how DF ate determined
for each member framing into a joint
The slab beams distribution factors for both spans are given as

𝐾𝑠𝑏1
𝐷𝐹 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 𝐵 − 𝐴 =
𝐾𝑒𝑐 + 𝐾𝑠𝑏1 + 𝐾𝑠𝑏2
𝐾𝑠𝑏2
𝐷𝐹 𝑠𝑝𝑎𝑛 𝐵 − 𝐶 =
𝐾𝑒𝑐 + 𝐾𝑠𝑏1 + 𝐾𝑠𝑏2
The equation for the distribution factor for the equivalent
column is
𝐾𝑒𝑐
𝐷𝐹 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑛 =
𝐾𝑒𝑐 + 𝐾𝑠𝑏1 + 𝐾𝑠𝑏2
EXAMPLE
• Step 2: Determine the column stiffness
factor
Step 3: Determine the Torsional
Stiffness of the slab section
Step 4: Compute for Kec, stiffness of the
equivalent column, then compute for
DF for each memeber.