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Chemistry

Hydrocarbons
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JANUARY 5, 2019
HYDROCARBONS
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o Hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of


hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons are examples of group 14
hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been
removed are functional groups called hydrocarbyls. Because carbon
has 4 electrons in its outermost shell (and because each covalent
bond requires a donation of 1 electron, per atom, to the bond)
carbon has exactly four bonds to make, and is only stable if all
4 of these bonds are used.

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THE HOMOLOGOUS GROUP OF ALKANES
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o Alkanes is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon. In other words, an


alkane consists of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a tree
structure in which all the carbon-carbon bonds are single.
Alkanes have the general chemical formula C nH2n+2.

o Saturated Hydrocarbons have maximum number of hydrogen atoms in


their molecules.

TYPES OF REPRESENTING THE FORMULA:

T
SOURCES OF THE ALKANES
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Example: Crude Oil


 Crude Oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons – alkanes,
cycloalkans and aromatic compounds.
 Cycloalkanes are saturated hydrocarbons in which there is
ring consisting of three or more atoms. That is because
the two end carbon atoms in an alkane chain bond to each
other, forming closed ring.
 Another class of hydrocarbons called aromatic
hydrocarbons, which are also known as arenes.
REACTIONS OF ALKANES
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The alkane are generally


unreactive compounds.
Explanation:
 Very small difference in
electromagnetivity between
carbon and hydrogen.
 The alkane molecules are
non-polar.
 They have no partial
positive charges or any of
their carbons atoms to
attract nucleophiles.
 No high electrons density
to attract electrophiles.
Combustion of Alkanes
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Alkenes are used as fuels, because:


 To generate electricity in power stations.
 To heat our homes and cook our food
 To provide energy needed in industrial
processes
 To provide power for ships, aeroplanes,
trains, lorries, buses and cars.
Example:
If alkenes is burnt with oxygen, will have a
combustion.
Alkane + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water
Combustion of Alkanes

Example of petrol:
Octane + oxygen -> Carbon dioxide + water

POLLUTION FROM BURNING HYDROCARBON FUELS:

When the petrol is mixed with air inside a


car engine, there is a limited supply of
oxygen.
Some of the carbon is only partially
oxidised to form carbon monoxide gas.
Octane + oxygen -> Carbon monoxide + water
 Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas

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Pollution From Burning Hydrocarbon Fuels
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Nitrogen gas in the air


does not get oxidised.
Toxic carbon monoxide and
acidic nitrogen oxides is
a unburnt hydrocarbons.
Cars can catalytic
converted their exhaust
system and can have
several reaction as:
 The oxidation of carbon
monoxide to form carbon dioxide
 The reduction of nitrogen
oxides to form harmless
nitrogen gas
 The oxidation of unburnt
hydrocarbons to form carbon
dioxide and water.
Pollution From Burning Hydrocarbon Fuels

 The carbon and nitrogen monoxide takes place


on the surface of the precious metal catalyst
in a catalytic converter and can be express
like:
2CO + 2NO -> 2CO2 +N2

Carbon dioxide is not a toxic gas, but it is


considered like a pollutant because of its
contribution to enhanced global warming.

Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in the air but


it occurs problems like the enhamced global
warming because of the amount of CO2.

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Substitution Reactions of Alkanes
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Iniation Step
 The first step in the mechanism is the
breaking of Cl-Cl bond by ultraviolet
light from the sun. This is an example of
homolytic fission of a covalent bond

Propagation Steps
 C-H bond in CH4 breaks homolytically.
 Chlorine free radical attacks a
halogenoalkane already formed.
Termination Steps
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When two free radicals meet they


will react with each other. When
is no free radials are made can
carry on the reaction sequences,
the chain stops for example:
 In the initiation step we start
with a molecule and get two
free radicals formed.
 In the propagation steps we
start with a molecule plus a
free radical and get a diffeent
molecule and a different free
radical formed.
 In the termination steps we
start with two free radicals
and end up with no molecule and
no free radicals.
The Alkenes
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 Double bond found in the hydrocarbons


called alkenes.
 Alkanes one-double bond per molecule
formula is CnH2n.
 Alkanes can be described as saturated
hydrocarbons and unsaturated
hydrocarbons.
 The large, less useful hydrocrbon
molecules are broken down and are more
useful molecules and its called
cracking.
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Addition Reactions of the Alkenes
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Two bonds in the carbon-carbon double bond is


broken and a new single bond is formed from
each of the two carbon atoms.

ADDITION OF HYDROGEN (H2)


When hydrogen and an alkene are passed over a
finely divided nickel catalyst and produces a
reaction of alkane.
Addition of Steam (H2O)
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 The addition of steam to alkene is ued


in industry to make alcohols.
 When the alkene is ethene, produce
ethanol.
Addition of Hydrogen Halides (HX)
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 When an alkene is bubbled through a


concentrated solution of hydrogen
halide make a product that is a
halogenoalkane.
 HF, HCL, HBr, HI
Addition of Halogens (X2)
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 If we bubble an alkene through a


solution of chlorine or bromine and
with that it get an addition reaction.
The Mechanism of Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes
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 Threre are four electrons in total in


two bonds. So ethane is a non-polar
molecule.
 HBr is a polar molecuñe because of the
difference in electronegativity.
 Br ion formed them to attacks the highly
reactive carbocation intermediate.
Oxidation of the Alkenes
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 Alkenes can be oxidised by acidified


potassium manganate (VII)solution, which
is powerful oxidising agent.

HOT, CONCENTRATED MANGANATE (VII) SOLUTION

 The C double bond C in the alkene is


broken. The O – H groups formed initially
that are further pxidised to ketones,
aldehydes, carboxylic acids or carbon
dioxide gas.
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Addition Polymerisation
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Is the most important addition reaction of alkenes forms of


the basis of much plastic industry. Ethene and other
unsaturated molecules can react with each other under the
right conditions to form polymer molecules.
Up to 10000 ethene monomers can bond together to form
polymer chains of poly ethene.
This is used commonly to make carrier bags.
Other alkenes also polymerise to make polymers with
different properties.
Examples.
 Poly(Propene) and Poly(phenylethane).
We can show polymerisation on a displayed formula
H H H H
C=C C C
H H H H
Addition of Polymerisation
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We can also used substituted alkenes, such as cloroethene, as


monomers:
nH2C = CHCL H2C – CHCL

This section of the polymer chain


is the repeat unit of poly(chloroethene).
In poly(alkenes) made of one type of monomer, the repeat unit is the
same, as the monomer except that the C=C double bond is changed to a
C-C single bond.
As in any other addition reactions of alkenes, addition of
polymerization yields only one product.

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Disposal of Poly (alkene) Plastics
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As we all know, plastic are used in many ways during our


daily lives, due to the excessive use of it and has created
a problem when we come to dispose them. During their
lifetime one of them useful properties is their lack of
reactivity.
Since they are non-biodegradable, throwing them away creates
rubbish that is constantly the sea, rivers and the
environment for centuries.
Halogenoalkanes
Nucleophilic Substitution
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The simplest halogenoalkanes, whose molecules contain just


one halogen atom, will have the general formula : CnH2n +
1X, where X is F, Cl, Br or I.
The presence of the halogen atom, has a huge impact on the
reactivity of the halogenoalkanes.
1 substitution reactions with aqueous alkali, OH (aq)
When an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide is added to a
halogenoalkane, a nucleophilic substitution takes place
The halogen atom is replaced by an hydroxyl group, therefore
an alcohol is formed:
CH3CH2Br + NaOH CH3CH2OH + NaBr
It behaves as nuclephile, because it is donating a pair of
electrons to the carbon atom bonded to the halogen
This is why the reaction is called a nuclephilic
substitution.
2 Substitution with Cyanide Ions
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During this reaction the cyanide is the nucleophile, because


is the one who donate electrons.
In order to carry out this reaction a solution of potassium
cyanide, in ethanol this is made up./
An ionic equation for this reaction:
CH3CH2Br + CN– CH3CH2CN + Br
In the reaction, one extra carbon atom is added to the
original halogenoalkane

3 Substitution with ammonia, NH3 in ethanol


Here the nucleophile is the ammonia molecule. If this is
heated with an excess of ammonia an amine is formed
CH3CH2Br + NH3 CH3CH2NH2 +HBr
Mechanism of Nucleophilic Substitution
in Halogenoalkanes
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In these reactions of
halogenoalkanes, the nucleophile
attacks the carbon atom bonded to
the halogen. The carbon- halogen is
polarized because of the halogen is
more electronegative than carbon.
Therefore the halogen atom is
replace by a nucleophile in the
substitution reaction.

There are two possible mechanisms


that can operate in the
nucleophilic substitution reactions
of halogenoalkanes. The mechanism
is determined by the structure of
the halogenoalkane involved in the
reaction.
Elimination reactions
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An elimination reaction involves the loss of a small molecule from


the original organic molecule. In the case of halogenoalkanes.
The reagent used in these elimination reactions is ethanolic sodium
hydroxide
CH3CHBrCH3 + NaOH(ethanol)
CH2 CHCH3 + H2O + NaBr
The importance of the conditions used in organic reactions. For
example
 If we used NaOH, a nucleophilic substitution occurs and alcohol
is produced.
 If we use ethanol, an elimination reaction occurs.
Uses of Halogenoalkanes
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Halogenoalkanes are rarely found


naturally, but they are
important on the chemical
industry.
Its already being seen how some
halogenoalkanes are important
anesthetics and other essential
properties of the anesthesia.
Also for medication such as
Teflon, and also used during
cooking without breaking down.
The polymer is now finding uses
in ice-skating blades because of
its durability and its low-
friction properties.

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Conclusion
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 In this presentation, we bathed in


knowledge, learning on a more conscious way,
what are the hydrocarbons and the
halogenoalkanes, and how these two helped us
in our daily lives.
 Also all the things that can happen, if we
dont take control of them and the could also
affects our daily lives, due to pollution
and the excessive use of them.
 Halogenoalkanes and hydrocarbons, helped us
since the beggining of time in our daily
lives, but if we dont control the excessive
use of them, it can lead into a disaster
THANKS !

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