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Buoyant force is the resultant fluid force acting on a stationary body that is completely

submerged or a floating body that is only partially submerged.

Buoyant force on

submerged and

floating bodies.

where A is the horizontal area of the upper (or lower) surface of the parallelepiped

Therefore, the buoyant force has a magnitude equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by

the body and is directed vertically upward.

The buoyant force passes through the centroid of the displaced volume as shown in Fig.

16c. The point through which the buoyant force acts is called the center of buoyancy.

EXAMPLE 6.

Solution:

Stability

A body is said to be in a stable equilibrium position if, when displaced,

it returns to its equilibrium position. Conversely, it is in an unstable

equilibrium position if, when displaced (even slightly), it moves to a

new equilibrium position.

the center of gravity

falls below the center

of buoyancy, the body

is in a stable

equilibrium position Fig. 17 Stability of a Fig. 18 Stability of a

with respect to small completely immersed completely immersed

rotations. body—center of gravity body—center of gravity

below centroid. above centroid.

gravity above its center of buoyancy is in an unstable

equilibrium position.

Surface and body forces

acting on small fluid

element.

The resultant surface force acting on a small fluid element depends only on the pressure

gradient if there are no shearing stresses present.

or

Similarly, for the x and z directions the resultant surface forces are

and

The resultant surface force acting on the element can be expressed in vector form as

or

where i ̂ ,j ̂ , and k ̂ are the unit vectors along the coordinate axes. The group of terms in

parentheses in the resultant surface represents in vector form the pressure gradient and

can be written as

The resultant surface force per unit volume can be expressed as

where the negative sign indicates that the force due to the weight is downward

Newton’s second law, applied to the fluid element, can be expressed as

It follows that

or

and, therefore,

This the general equation of motion for a fluid in which there are no shearing stresses.

Pressure Variation in a Fluid with Rigid-Body Motion

Even though a fluid may be in motion, if it moves as a rigid body there will be no shearing

stresses present.

Eq.1 in component form, based on rectangular coordinates with the positive z axis being

vertically upward, can be expressed as

There is no shear stress in fluids that move with rigid-body motion or with rigid-body

rotation.

Linear acceleration of a liquid with a free surface.

We first consider an open container of a liquid that is translating along a straight path with

a constant acceleration a as illustrated in Fig. 19

The change in pressure between two closely spaced points located at y, z, and y+dy, z+dz

can be expressed as

or in terms of the results of the pressure gradient

Along a line of constant pressure, dp = 0 and therefore from eq. above, it follows that the

slope of this line is given by the relationship

slope

EXAMPLE

Solution:

(a) For a constant horizontal acceleration the fuel will move as a rigid body, so that the

slope of the fuel surface can be expressed as

or

Since there is no acceleration in the vertical, z, direction, the pressure along the wall varies

hydrostatically. Thus, the pressure at the transducer is given by the relationship

where h is the depth of fuel above the transducer, and therefore

Some of the important equations in this chapter are:

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