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Teaching Learning Process

“A thousand teachers,
a thousand methods.”
-Chinese Proverb
Please allow team / group
work during exams !
Outline
1-Introduction.

2- Definitions of terms related to teaching learning process.

3-Principles of Effective Teaching& learning process.

4-Principles of learning.

5-Aspects of the teaching-learning process.

6-Information Processing
What is Teaching

• a process of interacting
• The process of engaging students in
activities that will enable them to acquire
the knowledge, skills, as well as
worthwhile values and attitudes.

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TEACHING APPROACH
It is a set of principles, beliefs, or ideas
about the nature of learning which is
translated into the classroom.
EXAMPLES OF TEACHING APPROACHES

TEACHER-CENTERED LEARNER-CENTERED

SUBJECT-MATTER CENTER LEARNER-CENTERED

TEACHER DOMINATED INTERACTIVE

“BANKING” APPROACH CONSTRUCTIVIST

DISCIPLINAL INTEGRATED

INDIVIDUALISTIC COLLABORATIVE

INDIRECT, GUIDED DIRECT


Teacher centered vs Learner Centered
PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING

•Principle of using previous knowledge


•Principle of providing for individual difference
•Principle of readiness
•Principle of meaningfulness
•Principle of defining specific objectives of the lesson
•Principle of proceeding from simple to complex
•Principle of proceeding from concrete to abstract
•Principle of proceeding from general to specific
•Principle of proceeding from known to unknown
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Use of
Teaching Strategies:
Learning is an active process.
We have to actively engage the learners in learning
activities if we want them to learn what we intend
to teach.
Research shows
75% retention rates in learning by doing
90% retention rates learning by teaching others
Guiding Principles in the Selection and Use of
Teaching Strategies:
The more senses that are involved in learning, the more
and the better the learning.

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IMPLEMENT

PLAN EVALUATE

Feedbacks and Reflection

Teaching Process
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TEACHING PHASES OPERATIONS

Fixing up Goals &


STAGE-I Content
Pre-Active
Stage Decision about
Strategies

Diagnosis of the
STAGE-2 Learners
TEACHING Inter-Active
Stage Actions and
Reactions

Appropriate Testing
STAGE-3 Devices
Post-Active
Stage Feedback and
Testing

PHASES OF TEACHING ----- Philip. W. Jackson


Planning Phase includes decision like:

• The needs of the learner


• The achievable goals & objectives to meet the
needs
• Selection of the content to be taught
• Motivation to carry out the goal,
• Approach most fit to carry out the goals
• Evaluation process to measure learning
outcome
Considerations in planning

•Learner
•Availability of materials
•Time requirement of particular activity
•Strategy need to achieve the objective
Implementation phase
• Based on the objective, implementation means to
put into action the different activities in order to
achieve the objectives through the subject matter.
• Interaction of the teacher and learner is
important in the accomplishment of the plan
• Use of different teaching style and strategy are
included in this phase
Evaluation phase
• A match of the objective with the learning
outcome will be made
• Answers the question if the plans and
implementation have been successfully
achieved
• Feedback
Basic assumptions
• That teaching is goal oriented with the change
of behaviour as the ultimate end
• That teaching is a rational and a reflective
process
• That teachers by their actions can influence
learners to change their own thinking or desired
behaviour, thus teaching is a way of changing
behaviour, through the intervention of the
teacher
Good teaching is .......
•One that is well planned & where activities are
interrelated to each other
•Goes beyond recall of information
•One that provide learning experiences or
situation that will ensure understanding,
application and critical thinking

One where the learner is stimulated to think and


reason and apply
Learning as a process of learning

To teach, is to make
someone to learn...
Learning
• Defined as a change in an individual’s
behaviour caused by experiences or self
activity
• Implies that learning can only happen
through the individuals activity or his own
doing
• Can be intentional or unintentional
Two principal types of learning
process
• Behavioural learning theories
• Cognitive learning theories
Behavioural Learning Theory
• Emphasizes observable behaviour such as new
skills, knowledge, or attitudes which can be
demonstrated
• Observable and measurable
• If the individual has changed behaviour, he
has learned
Cognitive Learning Theory
• Concerned with human learning in which
unobservable mental processes are used to
learn and remember new information or
acquired skill
• Related to concept of meaningful learning
through cognitive models
Three model of teaching anchored
on cognitive learning theory

• Discovery learning of Jerome Bruner


• Reception learning of David Ausubel
• Events of Learning of Robert Gagne
Discovery learning
• States that the individual learns from his own
discovery of the environment
• Learners are inherently curious, thus they can
be self motivated until they find answers to the
problem
• Gave rise to the emerging theory of
constructivism and self-learning
• Learning is flexible, exploratory, and
independent
Reception Learning
• Though learners are inherently curious, they
may not be able to know what is important or
relevant and they need external motivation in
order to learn
• Also emphasize that prior learning is
important in order to learn new things and
because knowledge continuously changes
once it is in the learner’s mind
Events of learning
(eight internal events)
1. Motivation phase – the learner must be
motivated to learn by expectation that learning
will be rewarding
2. Apprehending phase – learner stands or pay
attention if learning has to take place
3. Acquisition phase – while learner is paying
attention, the stage is set and the information
presented
4. Retention phase – newly acquired information
must be transferred from short tem to long
Events of .......
5. Recall phase – recall previously learned
information; to learn to gain access to what has
been learned is a critical phase in learning
6. Generalization phase – transfer of information
to new situations allows application of the
learned information in the context in which it
was learned
7. Feedback phase – students must receive
feedback on their performance - assessment
SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT
The goal of summative assessment is
to evaluate student learning at the end of an
instructional unit by comparing it against some
standard or benchmark.
Summative assessments are often high
stakes, which means that they have a high
point value.
Examples of summative assessments include:
• a midterm exam
• a final project
• a paper
FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT
The goal of formative assessment is
to monitor student learning to provide ongoing
feedback that can be used by instructors to
improve their teaching and by students to
improve their learning. More specifically,
formative assessments:
• help students identify their strengths and
weaknesses and target areas that need work
• help faculty recognize where students are
struggling and address problems immediately.
Information Processing
An integrated approach incorporates successful, research-
based and brain- based instructional strategies.
Some research findings about the brain (Wolfe, 2001):
1) Without rehearsal or constant attention, information
remains in working memory for only about 15-20 secs.
2) Learning is a process of building neural networks.
3) Our brains have difficulty comprehending large numbers
because we have nothing in our experience to ‘hook’
them to.
4) The eyes contain nearly 70% of the body’s sensory
receptors & send millions of signals every second along
the optic nerves to the visual processing of the brain.
5) There is little doubt when information is embedded in the
music or rhyme, its recall is easier than when it is in prose.
Forgetting
Fading – disuse
the ‘link’ fades
Interference – confuse
Distortion – misrepresentation due to imperfect
recall
Forgetting
How to prevent

Encourage active interaction


Multiple context
Practice – review/ use in new learning activity
If I can not
learn the way
you teach,
will you
teach me the
way I can
learn?
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