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1.1 Propositional Logic

MTK3013

DISCRETE STRUCTURES

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Logic

• Crucial for mathematical reasoning

• Important for program design

• Used for designing electronic circuitry

• A proposition is a (declarative) statement that is either true or

false (not both).

• We say that the truth value of a proposition is either true (T)

or false (F).

• Corresponds to 1 and 0 in digital circuits

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of the proposition? true

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of the proposition? false

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“y > 5”

Is this a statement?

Is this a proposition?

of the proposition?

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Is this a statement?

Is this a proposition?

of the proposition?

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Is this a statement?

Is this a proposition?

of the proposition?

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Is this a statement?

Is this a proposition?

of the proposition?

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“If elephants were red,

they could hide in cherry trees.”

Is this a statement?

Is this a proposition?

of the proposition?

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“x < y if and only if y > x.”

Is this a statement?

Is this a proposition?

of the proposition?

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Combining Propositions

more propositions can be combined to form a

single compound proposition.

letters such as p, q, r, s, and introducing several

logical operators.

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We will examine the following logical operators:

• Negation (NOT)

• Conjunction (AND)

• Disjunction (OR)

• Exclusive or (XOR)

• Implication (if – then)

• Biconditional (if and only if)

Truth tables can be used to show how these operators

can combine propositions to compound propositions.

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Negation (NOT)

Unary Operator, Symbol:

p p

true false

false true

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Conjunction (AND)

Binary Operator, Symbol:

p q pq

true true true

true false false

false true false

false false false

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Disjunction (OR)

Binary Operator, Symbol:

p q pq

true true true

true false true

false true true

false false false

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Exclusive Or (XOR)

Binary Operator, Symbol:

p q pq

true true false

true false true

false true true

false false false

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Binary Operator, Symbol:

p q pq

true true true

true false false

false true true

false false true

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_________________

“if-then” form.

can be expressed in ________

two parts

hypothesis is the ____

The __________ “if” part.

The __________

conclusion is the “then”

______ part.

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Conditional Statement

• If p, then q • A sufficient

• If p, q condition for q is p

• p is sufficient for q • q whenever p

• q if p • q is necessary for p

• An necessary • q follows from p

condition for p is q

• p implies q

• p only if q

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Example :

p : Maria learns Discrete Structures

q : Maria will find a good job.

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Inverse

To fully analyze this conditional statement, we

need to find three new conditionals:

Converse

Inverse

Contrapositive

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Converse

• The ________

converse of a conditional statement is

formed by switching the hypothesis and the

conclusion.

• Example:

(Conditional) If I am sleeping, then I am

breathing.

(Converse) If I am breathing, then I am

sleeping.

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Inverse

• The ________

inverse of a conditional statement is

formed by negating (inserting “not”) the

hypothesis and the conclusion.

• Example:

(Conditional) If I am sleeping, then I am

breathing.

(Converse) If I am not sleeping, then

I am not breathing.

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Contrapositive

contrapositive

• The ______________ of a conditional

statement is formed by negating the

hypothesis and the conclusion of the

converse.

• Example:

(Converse) If I am breathing, then I am

sleeping.

am not sleeping.

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( p q) breathing.

Inverse If I am not sleeping, then I am

¬ p -> ¬ q not breathing.

Converse If I am breathing, then I am sleeping.

q->p

Contrapositive If I am not breathing, then I am not

¬ p -> ¬ q sleeping.

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and contrapositive all have a truth value. That

is, we can determine if they are true or false.

false, we say that they are logically equivalent.

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Practice :

Conditional If m<A = 30°, then <A is

acute.

Inverse

(insert not)

Converse

(switch)

Contrapositive

(switch then

insert not)

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Conclusion

The conditional statement and its contrapositive

have the same truth value.

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the conditional statement.

A. hypothesis

B. Conclusion

C. neither

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the conditional statement.

A. hypothesis

B. Conclusion

C. neither

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given conditional.

play on the tennis team.

B. If you play on the tennis team, then you like

tennis.

C. If you do not play on the tennis team, then

you do not like tennis.

D. You play tennis only if you like tennis.

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conditional.

B. If 2x is even, then x is odd.

C. If x is even, then 2x is odd.

D. If x is not odd, then 2x is not even.

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Binary Operator, Symbol:

P Q PQ

true true true

true false false

false true false

false false true

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Statements and operators can be combined in any way to

form new statements.

P Q P Q (P)(Q)

true true false false false

true false false true true

false true true false true

false false true true true

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Statements and operators can be combined in any way to

form new statements.

true true true false false

true false false true true

false true false true true

false false false true true

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Equivalent Statements

P Q (PQ) (P)(Q) (PQ)(P)(Q)

true false true true true

false true true true true

false false true true true

The statements (PQ) and (P)(Q) are logically equivalent,

because (PQ)(P)(Q) is always true.

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