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LOGIC and PROOF


1.1 Propositional Logic

MTK3013
DISCRETE STRUCTURES
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Logic
• Crucial for mathematical reasoning
• Important for program design
• Used for designing electronic circuitry

• (Propositional )Logic is a system based on propositions.


• A proposition is a (declarative) statement that is either true or
false (not both).
• We say that the truth value of a proposition is either true (T)
or false (F).
• Corresponds to 1 and 0 in digital circuits
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The Statement/Proposition Game

“Elephants are bigger than mice.”

Is this a statement? yes

Is this a proposition? yes

What is the truth value


of the proposition? true
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The Statement/Proposition Game

“520 < 111”

Is this a statement? yes

Is this a proposition? yes

What is the truth value


of the proposition? false
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The Statement/Proposition Game

“y > 5”

Is this a statement?
Is this a proposition?

What is the truth value


of the proposition?
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The Statement/Proposition Game

“Today is January 25 and 99 < 5”

Is this a statement?

Is this a proposition?

What is the truth value


of the proposition?
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The Statement/Proposition Game

“Today is January 25 and 99 < 5.”

Is this a statement?

Is this a proposition?

What is the truth value


of the proposition?
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The Statement/Proposition Game

“Please do not fall asleep.”

Is this a statement?

Is this a proposition?

What is the truth value


of the proposition?
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The Statement/Proposition Game


“If elephants were red,
they could hide in cherry trees.”

Is this a statement?

Is this a proposition?

What is the truth value


of the proposition?
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The Statement/Proposition Game


“x < y if and only if y > x.”
Is this a statement?

Is this a proposition?

What is the truth value


of the proposition?
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Combining Propositions

As we have seen in the previous examples, one or


more propositions can be combined to form a
single compound proposition.

We formalize this by denoting propositions with


letters such as p, q, r, s, and introducing several
logical operators.
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Logical Operators (Connectives)


We will examine the following logical operators:
• Negation (NOT)
• Conjunction (AND)
• Disjunction (OR)
• Exclusive or (XOR)
• Implication (if – then)
• Biconditional (if and only if)
Truth tables can be used to show how these operators
can combine propositions to compound propositions.
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Negation (NOT)
Unary Operator, Symbol: 

p p
true false
false true
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Conjunction (AND)
Binary Operator, Symbol: 

p q pq
true true true
true false false
false true false
false false false
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Disjunction (OR)
Binary Operator, Symbol: 

p q pq
true true true
true false true
false true true
false false false
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Exclusive Or (XOR)
Binary Operator, Symbol: 

p q pq
true true false
true false true
false true true
false false false
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Implication (if - then)


Binary Operator, Symbol: 

p q pq
true true true
true false false
false true true
false false true
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1. A conditional statement is a statement that


_________________
“if-then” form.
can be expressed in ________

2. A conditional statement has _________.


two parts
hypothesis is the ____
The __________ “if” part.
The __________
conclusion is the “then”
______ part.
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Conditional Statement
• If p, then q • A sufficient
• If p, q condition for q is p
• p is sufficient for q • q whenever p
• q if p • q is necessary for p
• An necessary • q follows from p
condition for p is q
• p implies q
• p only if q
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Example :
p : Maria learns Discrete Structures
q : Maria will find a good job.

Express the statement p q.


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Converse, Contrapositive and


Inverse
To fully analyze this conditional statement, we
need to find three new conditionals:

Converse
Inverse
Contrapositive
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Converse
• The ________
converse of a conditional statement is
formed by switching the hypothesis and the
conclusion.
• Example:
(Conditional) If I am sleeping, then I am
breathing.
(Converse) If I am breathing, then I am
sleeping.
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Inverse
• The ________
inverse of a conditional statement is
formed by negating (inserting “not”) the
hypothesis and the conclusion.
• Example:
(Conditional) If I am sleeping, then I am
breathing.
(Converse) If I am not sleeping, then
I am not breathing.
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Contrapositive
contrapositive
• The ______________ of a conditional
statement is formed by negating the
hypothesis and the conclusion of the
converse.
• Example:
(Converse) If I am breathing, then I am
sleeping.

(Contrapositive)If I am not breathing, then I


am not sleeping.
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Conditional If I am sleeping, then I am


( p q) breathing.
Inverse If I am not sleeping, then I am
¬ p -> ¬ q not breathing.
Converse If I am breathing, then I am sleeping.
q->p
Contrapositive If I am not breathing, then I am not
¬ p -> ¬ q sleeping.
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The conditional statement, inverse, converse


and contrapositive all have a truth value. That
is, we can determine if they are true or false.

When two statements are both true or both


false, we say that they are logically equivalent.
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Practice :
Conditional If m<A = 30°, then <A is
acute.
Inverse
(insert not)
Converse
(switch)
Contrapositive
(switch then
insert not)
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Conclusion
The conditional statement and its contrapositive
have the same truth value.

They are both true.

They are logically equivalent.


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Identify the underlined portion of


the conditional statement.

A. hypothesis
B. Conclusion
C. neither
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Identify the underlined portion of


the conditional statement.

A. hypothesis
B. Conclusion
C. neither
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Identify the converse for the


given conditional.

A. If you do not like tennis, then you do not


play on the tennis team.
B. If you play on the tennis team, then you like
tennis.
C. If you do not play on the tennis team, then
you do not like tennis.
D. You play tennis only if you like tennis.
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Identify the inverse for the given


conditional.

A. If 2x is not even, then x is not odd.


B. If 2x is even, then x is odd.
C. If x is even, then 2x is odd.
D. If x is not odd, then 2x is not even.
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Biconditional (if and only if)


Binary Operator, Symbol: 

P Q PQ
true true true
true false false
false true false
false false true
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Statements and Operators


Statements and operators can be combined in any way to
form new statements.

P Q P Q (P)(Q)
true true false false false
true false false true true
false true true false true
false false true true true
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Statements and Operations


Statements and operators can be combined in any way to
form new statements.

P Q PQ  (PQ) (P)(Q)


true true true false false
true false false true true
false true false true true
false false false true true
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Equivalent Statements
P Q (PQ) (P)(Q) (PQ)(P)(Q)

true true false false true


true false true true true
false true true true true
false false true true true
The statements (PQ) and (P)(Q) are logically equivalent,
because (PQ)(P)(Q) is always true.