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 Absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in
which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – liquid or
solid material.
 The process of absorption means that a substance captures and
transforms energy. The absorbent distributes the material it captures
throughout whole.
 Absorption is a process that may be chemical (reactive) or physical
 The reverse of absorption is Desorption.
 In chemical separation processes, stripping is also referred to as
desorption as one component of a liquid stream moves by
mass transfer into a vapor phase through the liquid-vapor interface.
 Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or
molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a
surface.Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or
molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a
 This process creates a film of the adsorbate on the surface
of the adsorbent.
 adsorption process is generally classified as physisorption
(characteristic of weak van der Waals forces) or
chemisorption (characteristic of covalent bonding).
 Adsorption is present in many natural, physical,
biological and chemical systems and is widely used in
industrial applications.
 Distillation is the process of separating the
components or substances from a liquid mixture by
using selective boiling and condensation.
 Distillation is a physical separation process, not a
chemical reaction.
 Cryogenic distillation leads to the separation of air
into its components – notably oxygen, nitrogen, and
argon – for industrial use.
 There are many types of distillation, such as; simple
distillation, Fractional distillation, steam distillation
 Evaporation is a unit operation that separates a
liquid from solids by means of heat transfer via
vaporization or boiling.
 It refers to the removal of water from a solution by
boiling the liquor in a suitable vessel called the
evaporator, and withdrawing the vapor.
 There are two types of evaporation. They are named
Single effect evaporation and Multiple effect
 One very common and important application for
evaporation is the cooling tower.
 Drying is a mass transfer process consisting of the
removal of water or another solvent by evaporation
from a solid, semi-solid or liquid.
 Drying refers to the final removal of water immediately
prior to packaging or dispatch.
 This operation often follows evaporation, filtration, or
 Drying is carried out for one or more of the
following reasons:
 To reduce the cost of transport.
 To make a material more suitable for handling, for
example, soap powders, dyestuffs, fertilizers.
 To provide definite properties, such as maintaining
the free-flowing nature of salt.
 Crystallization is defined as a process by which a
chemical is converted from a liquid solution into a solid
crystalline state.
 The crystallization process consists of two major events:
 Nucleation
 Crystal Growth
 Some of the ways by which crystals form are
precipitating from a solution, freezing, or more rarely
deposition directly from a gas.
 Crystallization is also a chemical solid–liquid
separation technique.
 crystallization occurs in a crystallizer.
 Solidification is the process when a molten liquid
becomes a solid.