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**What¶s the difference between distance and
**

displacement?

` Distance is the total amount an object has

traveled.

` Displacement is the object¶s change in position

A rock is thrown straight upward from the edge of

a 30 m cliff, rising 10 m then falling all the way

down to the base of the cliff. Find the rock¶s

displacement.

An infant crawls 5 m east, then 3 m north, then 1

m. What is the infant¶s DISTANCE and

DISPLACEMENT

An athlete runs exactly once around the track, a

total distance of 500 m. Find the runner¶s

displacement for the race

S = d/t, or V = x/t

If the infant in the previous example takes 20

seconds to complete his journey, find the

magnitude of his average velocity.

Is it possible to move with constant speed but not

constant velocity? Is it possible to mov e with

constant velocity but not constant speed?

a = v/t

` A car is traveling in a straight line along a highway

at a constant speed of 80 miles per hour for 10

seconds. Find its acceleration.

` Spotting a police car ahead, a driver of a car slows

from 32 m/s to 20 m/s in 2 seconds. Find the

car¶s average acceleration

t v v x

o

!

2

1

2

2

1

at t v x

o

!

at v v

o

!

a v v

o

2

2 2

!

An object with an initial velocity of 4 m/s moves along

a straight axis under constant acceleration. Three

seconds later, its velocity is 14 m/s. How far did it

travel during this time? 27m

A car that¶s initially traveling at 10 m/s accelerates

uniformly for 4 seconds at a rate of 2 m/s

2

in a straight

line. How far does the car travel during this time? 56m

A rock is dropped off a cliff that¶s 80 m high. If it

strikes the ground with an impact velocity of 40 m/s,

what acceleration did it experience during its descent?

10 m/s

2

` The area under a velocity vs. time graph equals

the displacement.

` Page 23-24

` Gravity is 10 m/s

2

` y = ½ at

2

A rock is dropped from an 80 m cliff. How long does it

take to reach the ground? 4s

A baseball is thrown straight upward with an initial

speed of 20 m/s. How high will it go? 20m

One second after being thrown straight down, an

object is falling with a speed of 20 m/s. How fast will

it be falling 2 seconds later? -40 m/s

If an object is thrown straight upward with an initial

speed of 8 m/s and takes 3 seconds to strike the

ground, from what height was the object thrown? 21m

X-motion is INDEPENDENT of Y-motion

An object is thrown horizontally with an initial speed of

10 m/s. It hits the ground 4 seconds later. How far

did it drop in 4 seconds? -80m

From a height of 100 m, a ball is thrown horizontally

with an initial speed of 15 m/s. How far does it travel

horizontally in the first 2 seconds? 30m

A rolling ball falls off a lab desk with a velocity of 2

m/s. The height of the lab desk is 1 m. How far away

does the ball land?

Any push or pull is called a force (N)

- Tension

- Gravitational force

- Air resistance

- Normal force

- Frictional force

- Electrostatic force

- Nuclear forces

` Law of Inertia ± A body at rest wants to stay at

rest or a body in motion wants to stay in motion

unless acted upon by an outside force

` F = ma

` Force is measure in Newtons (kgƔm/s

2

)

` For every action, there is an equal but

opposite reaction

What net force is required to maintain a 5000 kg

object moving at a constant velocity of magnitude

7500 m/s?

How much force is required to cause an object of

mass 2 kg to have an acceleration of 4 m/s

2

? 8 N

An object feels two forces; one of strength 8 N pulling

to the left and one of strength 20 N pulling to the right.

If the object¶s mass is 4 kg, what is its acceleration? 3

m/s

2

A book whose mass is 2 kg rests on a table. Find the

magnitude of the force exerted by the table on the

book. 20 N

` A can of paint with a mass of 6 kg hangs from a

rope. If the can is to be pulled up to a rooftop with

a constant velocity of 1 m/s , what must the

tension in the rope be? 60 N

` What force must be exerted to lift a 50 N object

with an acceleration of 10 m/s

2

? 100 N

` The force that is perpendicular to the surface

` A book whose mass is 2 kg rests on a table. Find

the magnitude of the normal force exerted by the

table on the book. 20 N

Parallel to the surface and opposite the direction

of the intended motion

1) Static friction ± the force that resists movement

F

s

= ȝ

s

F

N

2) Kinetic friction ± the force that acts on a moving

object

F

k

= ȝ

k

F

N

` A crate of mass 20 kg is sliding across a wooden

floor. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the

crate and the floor is 0.3

Ń Determine the strength of the friction force acting on the

crate. 60 N

Ń If the crate is being pulled by a force of 90 N (parallel to

the floor), find the acceleration of the crate. 1.5 m/s

2

A block slides down a frictionless, inclined plane

that makes a 30 degree angle with the horizontal.

Find the acceleration of this block. 5 m/s

2

Suppose the same block slides down the same

inclined plane with a coefficient of kinetic friction of

0.3. Find the acceleration of the block

A

c

= v

2

/r

F

c

= mv

2

/r

Anything pointing towards the center of the circle is

positive, anything pointing away is negative

An object of mass 5 kg moves at a constant speed of

6 m/s in a circular path of radius 2 m. Find the

object¶s acceleration and the net force responsible for

its motion. 18 m/s

2

; 90 N

An athlete who weighs 800 N is running around a

curve at a speed of 5.0 m/s with a radius of 5.0 m.

Find the centripetal force acting on him & what

provides the centripetal force? 400 N & static friction

A roller-coaster car enters the circular loop portion

of the ride. At the very top of the circle, the speed

of the car is 15 m/s, and the acceleration points

straight down. If the diameter of the loop is 40 m

and the total mass of the car is 1200 kg, find the

magnitude of the normal force exerted by the track

on the car at this point. 1500 N

How would the normal force change if the car was

at the bottom of the circle? 25,500 N

` Ĳ = Frsinș

Counterclockwise ± Torque is positive

Clockwise ± Torque is negative

` What is the net torque in the following picture? 5.6

NƔm

` W = Fdcosș

` A crate is moved along a horizontal floor by a

worker who¶s pulling on it with a rope that makes a

30 degree angle with the horizontal. The tension

in the rope is 69 N and the crate slides a distance

of 10 m. How much work is done on the crate by

the worker? 600 J

A box slides down an inclined plane with an angle

of 37 degrees. The mass of the block is 35 kg, the

coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.3, and the length

of the ramp is 8 m.

1. How much work is done by gravity? 1690 J

2. How much work is done by the normal force? 0 N

3. How much work is done by friction? -671 J

4. What is the total work done?

KE = ½ mv

2

The energy an object possesses due to its motion

A pool cue striking a stationary billiard ball (m =

0.25 kg) gives the ball a speed of 2 m/s. If the

average force of the cue on the ball was 200 N,

over what distance does this force act? 0.0025 m

` PE = mgh

` The energy an object possesses due to its

position

` A 60 kg stuntwoman scales a 40 m tall rock. What

is her gravitational potential energy? If she were

to jump off the cliff, what would her final velocity

be? 24,000 J; 28 m/s

E

i

= E

f

KE

i

+ PE

i

= KE

f

+ Pe

f

A ball of mass 2 kg is gently pushed off the edge of a

table that is 5 m above the floor. Find the speed of the

ball as it strikes the floor. 10 m/s

A box is projected up a long ramp with an incline of 37

degrees with an initial speed of 10 m/s. If the surface

of the ramp is frictionless, how high up the ramp will

the box go? What distance along the ramp will it

slide?

` A skydiver jumps from a hovering helicopter that¶s

3000 m above the ground. If air resistance can be

ignored, how fast will he be falling when his

altitude is 2000 m? 140 m/s

` Wile E. Coyote (m = 40 kg) falls off a 50 m high

cliff. On the way down, the force of air resistance

has an average strength of 100 N. Find the speed

with which he crashes into the ground. 27 m/s

The rate at which work is done

P = W/t or P = Fv

A mover pushes a large crate (m = 75 kg) from the

inside of the truck to the back end (distance of 6

m), exerting a steady push of 300 N. If he moves

the crate this distance in 20 s, what is his power

output? 90 W

What must be the power output of an elevator

motor that can lift a total mass of 1000 kg and give

the elevator a constant speed of 8.0 m/s? 80,000

W or 80 kW

p = mv

F = ¨p/¨t = ¨mv/¨t

Momentum is also conserved

A golfer strikes a golf ball of mass 0.05 kg and the

time of impact between the golf club and the ball is

1 ms. If the ball acquires a velocity of magnitude

70 m/s, calculate the average force on the ball.

3500 N

J = F¨t

An 80 kg stuntman jumps out of a window that¶s 45 m

above the ground.

1. How fast is he falling when he reaches the ground?

30 m/s

2. He lands on an air bag, coming to rest in 1.5s. What

average force does he feel while coming to rest? -

1600 N

3. What if he had instead landed on the ground (impact

time 10 ms)? -240,000 N

Elastic Collisions ± Kinetic Energy is conserved

Inelastic Collisions ± Kinetic Energy is not conserved.

Two balls roll toward each other. The red ball has a

mass of 0.5 kg and a speed of 4 m/s just before

impact. The green ball has a mass of 0.2 kg and a

speed of 2 m/s. After the head-on collision, the red

ball continues forward with a speed of 2 m/s. Find the

speed of the green ball after the collision. Was the

collision elastic? 3.0 m/s; no

F = Gm

1

m

2

/ r

2

G = 6.67 x 10

-11

N Ɣ m

2

/ kg

2

` Given that the radius of the earth is 6.37 x 10

6

m,

determine the mass of the earth. 6.1 x 10

24

kg

` An artificial satellite of mass m travels at a

constant speed in a circular orbit of radius R

around the earth (mass M). What is the speed of

the satellite? ¥GM/R

` F = -kx

` The stiffer the spring, the greater the k

` Force and acceleration are greatest when

displacement is greatest.

` A 12 cm long spring has a spring constant of 400

N/m. How much force is required to stretch the

spring to a length of 14 cm? 8 N

` PE

elastic

= ½ kx

2

` PE is maximized when spring is at the endpoints,

KE is minimum

` PE is 0 when spring is passing through x=0

(equilibrium) and KE is maximum

` A 0.05 kg block oscillates on a spring whose force

(spring) constant is 500 N/m. The amplitude of

the oscillations is 4.0 cm. Calculate the maximum

speed of the block. 4 m/s

` A 2.0 kg block is attached to an ideal spring with a

force constant of 500 N/m. The amplitude is 8.0

cm. Determine the total energy of the oscillator

and the speed of the block when it¶s 4.0 cm from

equilibrium. 1.6 J; 1.1 m/s

` T = 1/f

` T = 2¥m/k

` w = 2f, 2/T, ¥k/m

` A block oscillating on the end of a spring moves from

is position of maximum stretch to maximum

compression in 0.25 s. Determine the period and

frequency. 0.5 s; 2 Hz

` A student observing an oscillating block counts 45.5

cycles in one minute. Determine its frequency and

period. .758 Hz; 1.32s

` A 2.0 kg block is attached to a spring whose

spring constant is 300 N/m. Calculate the

frequency and period. 1.9 Hz; 0.51 s

` A block is attached to a spring and set into

oscillatory motion and its frequency is measured.

If this block were removed and replaced by a

second block with ¼ the mass of the first block,

how would the frequency of the oscillations

compare? f increases by a factor of 2

` KE is maximum at the equilibrium position

` Frequency nor period depends on the amplitude

for any object in SHM

L

g

T

!

T 2

` A simple pendulum has a period of 1s on Earth.

What would its period be on the moon, where g is

1/6

th

of the earth¶s value?2.4s

` p = m/v

` specific gravity = p

substance

/ p

water

(1000 kg/m

3

)

` A cork has a volume of 4 cm

3

and weighs .01 N.

What is the specific gravity of the rock? 0.25

` P = F/A

` 1 atm = 101,300 Pa (1.013 x 10

5

Pa)

` A vertical column made of cement has a base

area of 0.5 m

2

. If the height is 2 m, and the sp.

Gravity of cement is 3, how much pressure does

this column exert on the ground? 6 x 10

4

Pa

` F

g

= pvg

` P

liquid

= pgh (depends only on density and depth)

` P

total

= P

atm

+ P

liquid

` What is the gauge pressure of a swimming pool at

a point 1 m below the surface? 1 x10

4

Pa

` What happens to the gauge pressure if we double

the depth below the surface of a liquid? What

happens to the total pressure? Gauge pressure

increases by a factor of 2; Total pressure

increases by less than a factor of 2

` A flat piece of wood of area 0.5 m

2

is lying at the

bottom of a lake. If the depth of the lake is 30 m,

what is the force on the wood due to the

pressure? 2 x 10

5

N

` The net upward force of an object in a liquid is

called the buoyant force.

` Archimedes Principle - The strength of the

buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid

displaced by the object.

F

B

= pvg

V

sub

= p

object

V

total

p

fluid

` If p

object

< p

fluid

, then the object will float

` A brick with a specific gravity of 2 and volume of

1.5 x 10-3 m3, is dropped into a swimming pool

full of water. Explain why the brick will sink. When

the brick is lying on the bottom of the pool, what is

the magnitude of the normal force on the brick?

Specific gravity is greater than 1; 15 N

` A glass sphere of specific gravity 2.5 and volume

of 10

-3

m

3

is completely submerged in a large

container of water. What is the apparent weight

of the sphere while immersed? 15 N

` f = Av

` A

1

v

1

= A

2

v

2

(flow speed increases when the pipe

narrows or inversely proportional)

` A pipe carries water. At one point in the pipe, the

radius is 2 cm and the flow speed is 6 m/s. What is

the flow rate? What is the flow speed where the

pipe¶s radius changes to 1 cm? 7.5 x 10

-3

m

3

/s; 24

m/s

` If the diameter of the pipe increases from 4 cm to 12

cm, what will happen to the flow speed? 1/9 the

flowrate

` States that energy is conserved for fluid flow

P

1

+ pgy

1

+ ½ pv

1

2

= P

2

+ pgy

2

+ ½ pv

2

` The pressure is lower where the flow speed is

greater (airplanes, hurricanes).

` Celsius to Fahrenheit

9/5C + 32 = F

` Fahrenheit to Celsius

(F-32)5/9 = C

` Celsius to Kelvin

C + 273 = K

` Q = mc¨T (how much heat is added of removed

in the system to change the temperature)

` Q = mL (changing phases)

` Sp. Heat of water = 4186 J/kg ·C

` Rate of heat transfer

L

T kA

t

Q (

!

T L L

o

A = A o

A brass rod 5 m long and 0.01 m in diameter

increases in length by 0.05 m when its

temperature is increased by 500°C. A similar

brass rod of length 10 m has a diameter of 0.02 m.

By how much will this rod¶s diameter increase if its

temperature is increased by 1000°C? 4 x 10

-4

m

` An aluminum rod (p = 2.7 x 103 kg/m3 has a radius

of 0.01 m and an initial length of 2 m at a

temperature of 20°C. Heat is added to raise its

temperature to 90°C. Its coefficient of linear

expansion is = 25 x 10-6/°C, the specific heat is 900

J/kg°C, and a thermal conductivity of k = 200 J/s

m°C.

Ń What is the mass of the aluminum rod? 1.7 kg

Ń What is the amount of heat added to the rod? 107,100 J

Ń What is the new length of the rod? 0.0035 m

Ń If we were to use this rod to transfer heat between two

objects one side being at 20°C and the other side at 90°C,

what would the rate of heat transfer be? 2.2 J/s

` P = F/A (Pa)

` Pv = nRT

` Speed of molecules of a gas

` In order for the average speed of the molecules in

a given sample of gas to double, what must

happen to the temperature? Since v is

proportional to square root of T, the temperature

must quadruple

m

kT

v

rms

3

=

M

RT

v

rms

3

!

` A cylindrical container of radius 15 cm and height

30 cm contains 0.6 mole of gas at 433 K. How

much force does the confined gas exert on the lid

of the container? 35 N

` Zeroth Law ± Heat flows from the warmer object to

the cooler one until they reach thermal equilibrium.

` First Law

Ń W = -P¨V

x Work is positive when work is done ON the system (volume

id decreaseing

x Work is positive when work is done ON the surroundings

(volume is increasing)

W Q U ! (

THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS:

THE LAW OF ENTROPY

Heat flows spontaneously from a substance at a

higher temperature to a substance at a lower

temperature and does not flow spontaneously in the

reverse direction.

C H

Q W Q =

H H

C

H

C

Q

W

T

T

Q

Q

e = = = 1 1

` A heat engine draws 800 J of heat from its high

temperature source and discards 450 J of exhaust

heat into its cold-temperature reservoir. How

much work does this engine perform and what is

its thermal efficiency? 350 J; 44%

` An inventor proposes a design for a heat engine

that operates between a heat source at 500°C and

a cold reservoir at 25°C with an efficiency of 2/3.

What¶s your reaction to the inventor¶s claim?

4 types of thermal processes

An isobaric process is a process that occurs at

constant pressure.

An isochoric process is a process that occurs at

constant volume.

An isothermal process is a process that occurs at

constant temperature.

An adiabatic process is a process during which no

energy is transferred to or from the system as heatat.

` Consider two small spheres, one carrying a

charge of +1.5nC and the other a charge -2.0 nC,

separated by a distance of 1.5 cm. Find the

electric force between them. -1.2 x 10

-4

N

2

2 1

r

q q

k F =

´ )

2 2 9

C m N 10 99 . 8 4 1 - = =

o

k TI

2 2 12

m N C 10 85 . 8 v !

S

I

` It is the surrounding charges that create the electric field

at a given point.

The electrostatic force points in the direction of

attraction

The electric field always points away from the

positive charge and towards the negative charge.

o

q

F

E

T

T

!

` Electric field does not depend on the sign of the

test charge

2

r

q

k E !

` A charge q = +3.0 nC is placed at a location at

which the electric field strength is 400 N/C. Find

the force felt by charge q. 1.2 x 10

-6

N

` A dipole is formed by two point charges, each of

magnitude 4.0 nC, separated by a distance of 6.0

cm. What is the strength of the electric field at a

point midway between them? 8.0 x 10

4

N/C

` An object of mass 5g is placed at a distance of 2

cm above a charged plate. If the strength of the

electric field is 10

6

N/C, how much charge would

the object need to have in order for the electrical

repulsion to balance the gravitational pull? 5 x 10

-8

C

` Electric Field Lines Never Cross

` Always perpendicular to the surface and point

AWAY from the positive TOWARD the negative

` Conductors permit the flow of excess charge;

they conduct electricity well (metals)

Ń There can be no electrostatic field within the body of a

conductor. Why?

` Insulators do not conduct electricity well.

Electrons do not flow well

` A solid sphere of copper is given a negative

charge. Discuss the electric field inside and

outside the sphere.

o

AB

o

A

o

B

q

W

q q

!

EPE EPE

o

AB

o

A

o

B

q

W

q q

!

EPE EPE

` A positive charge q

1

= 2 + 10

-6

C is held

stationary, while a negative charge q

2

= -1 x 10

-8

C, is released from rest at a distance of 10 cm

from q

1

. Find the kinetic energy change of charge

q

2

when it¶s 1 cm from q

1

. 0.016 J

` Let Q = 2 x 10-8 C. What is the potential at a

Point P that is 2 cm from Q? 900 V

` How much work is done as a charge moves along

an equipotential surface? 0

B A o

AB

A B

r

kq

r

kq

q

W

V V !

!

r

kq

V !

` Capacitors are storage devices for electricity.

q = CV

` Parallel plate capacitors

d

A

C

o

OI

!

` A 10 nF parallel plate capactior holds a charge of

50ȝC on each plate. What is the electric potential

difference between the plates? If the plates are

separated by a distance of 0.2 mm, what is the

area of each plate? 5000 V; 0.23 m

2

` Amount of voltage the battery produces

` I = q/t (Amps, A)

` The direction of the current is taken to be the

direction that a positive charge would move

` Resistors are devices that control current

` R = V/I (Ohm¶s Law)

` Notice that if the current is large, the resistance is

low. If the current is small, the resistance is high.

` Resistivity:

A

L

R V =

resistivity in units of ohm·meter

` A wire of radius 1mm and length 2 m is made of

platinum (resistivity = 1 x 10

-7

ȍm). If a voltage of

9 V is applied between the ends of the wire, what

will be the resulting current? 140 A

IV P !

R I IR I P

2

! !

R

V

V

R

V

P

2

=

¦

'

+

'

=

` Combining Resistors

Ń Series (one after the other):

x Add as normal

Ń Parallel (side by side):

x Add as inverse

x Same voltage applied across each device

. !

3

R R R R

S

. !

3 2 1

1 1 1 1

R R R R

P

` Calculate the equivalent resistance in the circuit

` Combining Capacitors

Ń Series (one after the other):

x Add as inverse

Ń Parallel (side by side):

x Add as normal

` C = q/V

. !

3 2 1

C C C C

P

. !

3 2 1

1 1 1 1

C C C C

S

` Field lines travel away from the North poles and

travel toward the South poles.

X X X X X Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ

X X X X X Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ

X X X X X Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ

X X X X X Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ Ɣ

(into the page) (out of the page)

` The magnetic force always remains

perpendicular to the velocity and is directed

toward the center of the circular path.

U sin v q

F

B

o

!

` Right Hand Rule #1 (for positive charges)

Ń Thumb ± Direction particle is traveling

Ń Index ± Direction of Magnetic Field

Ń Middle ± Direction of Magnetic Force

` If the charge is NEGATIVE, the force is the

opposite direction

` Page 249

` Page 251

U sin ILB F !

` Pg 255

r

I

B

o

T

Q

2

!

A m T 10 4

7

v !

T Q

o

In the drawing, one cycle is shaded in color.

The amplitude A is the maximum excursion of a particle of the medium from

the particles undisturbed position.

The wavelength is the horizontal length of one cycle of the wave.

The period is the time required for one complete cycle.

The frequency is related to the period and has units of Hz, or s

-1

.

T

f

1

=

` Sound travels faster through solids, then liquids,

then gases.

P

P

f

T

v ! !

L m

F

v !

LONGITUDINAL SOUND WAVES

The area of condensation is

the region of compression

with increased air pressure

The area of rarefaction is

the region behind the

condensation with

decreased air pressure

` c = 3.00 x 10

8

m/s (speed of light)

` Pg 313

` Law of Reflection

Ń Incident angle is the same as the reflected angle

` n = c/v

` Snell¶s Law ± relates the angle of incidence and

the angle of refraction

` If n2<n1, light bends AWAY from the normal. If

n2>n1, light bends TOWARD the normal.

2 2 1 1

sin sin U U n n !

` A beam of light in air is incident upon a piece of

glass striking the surface at an angle of 30

degrees. If the index of refraction of the glass is

1.5, what are the angles of reflection and

refraction? 60°; 35°

` Critical Angle - The angle of incidence at which

the angle of refraction is 90°. No light is refracted

out and the beam is refracted along the surface.

Ń If the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle,

no beams of light are refracted.

2 1

1

2

sin n n

n

n

c

" = j

` Page 319

` Focal length = R/2

` Concave Mirrors

1. An incident ray parallel to the axis that is reflected

through the focal point

2. An incident ray that passes through the focal point and

reflected parallel

3. An incident ray that strikes the vertex is reflected at an

equal angle to the axis

` Convex Mirrors

1. An incident ray parallel to the axis is reflected away

from the focal point

2. An incident ray directed towards the focal point is

reflected parallel to the axis

3. An incident ray that strikes the vertex is reflected at an

equal angle to the axis

` Page 323

` Page 324

` Mirror Equation

` Magnification Equation

f d d

i

1 1 1

!

o

i

o

i

d

d

h

h

m ! !

Summary of Sign Conventions for Spherical Mirrors

mirror. concave a for is f

mirror. convex a for is f

mirror. the of front in is object the if is

o

d

mirror. the behi d is object the if is

o

d

image). (real mirr r t e of front in is object t e if is

i

d

im e). (virtual mirror the behi d i object the if i

i

d

obj t. upright n for i m

obj t. inv rt d n for is m

` An object of height 4 cm is placed 30 cm in front of

a concave mirror whose focal length is 10 cm.

Ń Where¶s the image? 15 cm

Ń Is it real or virtual? real

Ń Is it upright or inverted? inverted

Ń What the height? -2cm

` An object of height 4 cm is placed in front of a

convex mirror whose focal length is -30cm.

Ń Where¶s the image? ± 12 cm

Ń Is it real or virtual? virtual

Ń Is it upright or inverted? upright

Ń What¶s the height of the image? 2.4 cm

` Converging lenses cause rays of light to converge

to a focal point.

` Diverging lenses cause rays of light to diverge

away from the focal point

` Converging Lenses

Ń Incident ray parallel to the axis is refracted through the

focal point.

Ń Incident rays pass through the center point of the lens.

` Diverging Lenses

Ń An incident ray parallel to the axis is reflected away from

the focal point

Ń Incident rays pass through the center point of the lens.

` Page 330

` Page 331

Summary of Sign Conventions for Lenses (page 827)

lens. onverging for is f

lens. diverging a for is f

lens. the of left the to is object the if is

o

d

le . the of right the to i object the if i

o

d

image). (real le s the of right the to formed image a for is

i

d

image). (virtual le the of left the to formed image a for i

i

d

i ge. upright n for i m

i g . inv rt d n for is m

` An object of height 11 cm is placed 44 cm in front

of a converging lens with a focal length of 24 cm

Ń Where¶s the image? 53 cm

Ń Is it real or virtual? real

Ń Is it upright or inverted? inverted

Ń What¶s the height of the image? -13 cm

` An object of height 11 cm is placed 48 cm in front

of a diverging lens with a focal length of -24.5 cm.

Ń Where¶s the image? -16 cm

Ń Is it real or virtual? virtual

Ń Is it upright or inverted? upright

Ń What¶s the height of the image? 3.7 cm

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