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Chapter 4

Salads and

© Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF)

and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ingredients and
Parts of a Salad
 The three keys to ensuring a quality salad are:
 The freshness of ingredients
 Having all the ingredients blend together in harmony
 Making sure the salad is appealing to the eye
 The four basic parts to most salads are:
1. The base of a salad is usually a layer of salad greens that line
the plate or bowl in which the salad will be served.
2. The body of the salad consists of the main ingredients.
3. Garnish enhances the appearance of the salad while also
complementing the overall taste.
4. Salad dressings are liquids or semi-liquids used to flavor

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Types of Salad
 Proper handwashing is critical before preparing salads.
 The five main types of salad are:
1. The two types of green salad are tossed and composed (or
mixed). Prepare all ingredients individually for either salad.
2. Prepare the bound salad from cooked primary ingredients such
as meat, poultry, fish, egg, or starch such as potato, pasta, or rice.
3. Prepare a vegetable salad from cooked and/or raw vegetables.
4. Prepare a fruit salad from fruit using a slightly sweet or
sweet/sour dressing to enhance the flavor.
5. A combination salad incorporates a combination of any of the
four salad types.

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Salads and Service
 Salads can be used in five ways during the service courses:
1. A starter salad, served as an appetizer to the main meal, is
smaller in portion and consists of light, fresh, crisp ingredients to
stimulate the appetite.
2. Serve an accompaniment salad, or side salad, with the main
course of the meal, and make it light and flavorful, but not too rich.
3. Main course salads are large enough to serve as a full meal and
may contain protein ingredients, such as meat, poultry, seafood,
egg, beans, or cheese.
4. The intermezzo salad is intended to be a palate cleanser after a
rich dinner and before dessert.
5. Dessert salads are usually sweet and often contain fruits,
sweetened gelatin, nuts, cream, and whipped cream.

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Cleaning and Storing Salads
 The key to preparing good-tasting, interesting, attractive
salads is to start with clean, fresh ingredients.
 Always thoroughly wash greens because dirt can lodge
between leaves.
 After the greens are clean, proper storage is essential to
keeping them fresh.
 Proper storage ensures the quality of the product served
to the guest.
 All labels on stored containers should include the name
of the item, weight, date received, name of person
storing the product, and the original use-by date, if any.

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Section 4.1 Summary
 Lettuce is frequently used as a salad base, but any number
of ingredients can be used in a salad.
 The basic parts of a salad are the base, the body, the
garnish, and the dressing.
 The five basic types of salad are green salads (tossed or
composed), bound, vegetable, fruit, and combination.
 The five basic salads that can be served throughout the
course of a meal are starter, accompaniment, main course,
intermezzo, and dessert.
 To clean salads, remove the outer leaves of greens, pull
apart the remaining leaves, and rinse them thoroughly to
remove any and all dirt, grit, and insects.
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Types of Dressing
 The primary salad dressings are:
 Vinaigrette dressing in its simplest form is made of oil and
vinegar. Vinaigrettes are lighter, thinner dressings often used on
more delicate ingredients, such as greens and vegetables.
 Compared to the suspension mixture of regular vinaigrettes,
emulsified vinaigrettes have gone through the emulsion
process. An emulsion is a mixture of ingredients that
permanently stays together, unlike a suspension that eventually
 Mayonnaise-based dressings are typically creamy dressings,
such as Russian, thousand island, and blue cheese.
 Mayonnaise is the most stable and thickest emulsified dressing.
It contains a higher ratio of oil to vinegar and a greater quantity
of egg yolks than is required for emulsified vinaigrette.

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A dip is a flavorful mixture that accompanies certain foods.

 Like salad dressings, dips should complement or

enhance a food’s flavor.
 A dip must have the proper consistency. A dip should be
soft enough to scoop up with a cracker, chip, or
vegetable, but thick enough to stay on it.
 Ethnic variations of special salads and accompaniments
are very popular as dips:
 Guacamole: Avocado dip (Aztec origin).
 Salsa: Peppers, such as jalapeño or serrano, onions, and
tomatoes (Mexico).
 Hummus: Chick pea with garlic and tahini (Middle East).

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Section 4.2 Summary
 The four main salad dressings are vinaigrette, emulsified
vinaigrette, mayonnaise-based, and mayonnaise.
 An emulsion is the permanent blending of unlike
ingredients, such as oil and vinegar.
 Vinaigrettes are lighter dressings used on more delicate
ingredients, like salad greens.
 A dip is a mixture served as an accompaniment to certain
foods. Like salad dressings, dips are meant to complement
or enhance the foods they are served with, not hide the
flavor of the food.
 Salsa, guacamole, and hummus are examples of popular
ethnic dips.

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Why and How
 Proper garnish complements the main dish in color,
flavor, and texture.
 Garnish should enhance the flavor of a dish.
 Preparation of garnishes is an essential part of the dish.
 Some garnishes can be prepared in bulk for use when
plating and finishing both hot and cold items.
 What garnish to use depends not only on the food being
served, but also on how the food is laid out on the plate.
 The purpose of plate presentation is to enhance the eye
appeal of the food.

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Garnishing Dessert
 Consider the flavor, texture, and appearance of the item
being garnished when garnishing desserts.
 Numerous items can be used to garnish desserts
 Fruit coulis in many varieties
 Whipped cream, flavored and unflavored
 Frosted mint leaves
 Chocolate work in the form of string work or formed pieces
 Spun sugar work
 Sweet sauces
 The overall impact of the garnish on the appearance of
the dessert is driven by the way the garnish is presented.

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Garnishing Soups
 Garnishes for soups are classified into
three groups:
 Garnishes in the soup are the actual
ingredients. All garnishes must enhance
both the flavor and appearance of the soup.
 Add toppings to soups as a garnish as well.
Place any topping on the soup immediately
before service because it will either melt or
sink to the bottom.
 Garnishes in the form of accompaniments
with soups include crackers, melba toast,
corn chips, breadsticks, cheese straws,
whole-grain wafers, and gougères.

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Section 4.3 Summary
 Enjoyment of a meal is affected by how it looks. If food has
eye appeal, then enjoyment of the meal will go up.
 Garnishing properly is essential when presenting food. The
garnish will complement the main dish in color, flavor, and
 Garnish enhances the flavor of a dish as well as its eye
 Garnishing desserts requires consideration of the flavor,
texture, and appearance of the item being garnished.
 Garnishes for soups are classified into three groups—
garnishes in the soup, garnishes topping the soup, and
garnishes that accompany the soup on the side.
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