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 Organizing, like planning, must be a
carefully worked out and applied process.
This process involves determining what
work is needed to accomplish the goal,
assigning those tasks to individuals, and
arranging those individuals in a
decision‐making framework (organizational
1. Review plans and objectives

2. Determine the work activities

necessary to accomplish objectives.

3. Classify and group the necessary

work activities into manageable
4. Assign the activities and
delegate authority

5. Design a hierarchy of

 defines how activities such as task

allocation, coordination and supervision
are directed toward the achievement of
organizational aims.
Pre-bureaucratic structures
 lack standardization of tasks. This structure
is most common in smaller organizations and
is best used to solve simple tasks.
Bureaucratic structures
 have a certain degree of standardization.
They are better suited for more complex or
larger scale organizations, usually adopting a
tall structure.
 is used in two senses in the
organizational literature: one generic
and one much more specific.
Functional structure
is a structure that consists of activities
such as coordination, supervision and
task allocation. The organizational
structure determines how the
organization performs or operates.
Divisional structure
 or product structure consists of self-
contained divisions. A division is a collection
of functions which produce a product. It also
utilizes a plan to compete and operate as a
separate business or profit center.
Matrix structure
 groups employees by both function and
product simultaneously. This structure can
combine the best of both separate
• Weak/Functional Matrix: A project
manager with only limited authority is
assigned to oversee the cross-
functional aspects of the project.

• Strong/Project Matrix: A project

manager is primarily responsible for
the project. Functional managers
provide technical expertise and assign
resources as needed.
• Balanced/Functional Matrix: A
project manager is assigned to
oversee the project. Power is
shared equally between the
project manager and the functional
managers. It brings the best
aspects of functional and project
zed organizations.
Organizational Circle
 is common in small companies
(entrepreneurial start-ups, university spin
offs). As companies grow they tend to
become more complex and hierarchical,
which leads to an expanded structure, with
more levels and departments.
One of the newest organizational structures
developed in the 20th century is team and
the related concept of team development
or team building.
 Another modern structure is network. While
business giants risk becoming too clumsy to pro
act (such as), act and react efficiently, the new
network organizations contract out any business
function, that can be done better or more cheaply.
 defined as being closely coupled upstream with
its suppliers and downstream with its customers
such that where one begins and the other ends
means little to those who manage the business
processes within the entire organization.
Hierarchy-community phenotype
 In the 21st century, even though
most, if not all, organizations are not
of a pure hierarchical structure,
many managers are still blind to the
existence of the flat community
structure within their organizations

 is defined as the underlying beliefs,

assumptions, values and ways of
interacting that contribute to the
unique social and psychological
environment of an organization.
 includes an organization’s expectations,
experiences, philosophy, as well as the values
that guide member behavior, and is expressed
in member self-image, inner workings,
interactions with the outside world, and future
expectations. Culture is based on shared
attitudes, beliefs, customs, and written and
unwritten rules that have been developed over
time and are considered valid.
 Culture also includes the organization’s vision,
values, norms, systems, symbols, language,
assumptions, beliefs, and habits.