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LAND IMPOSES UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

• First developed for military purposes

during the 1970’s and expanded into

civilian use over the next few decades

• Used to determine the ground position of

an object

A. B.

• The GPS system includes 24 satellites

deployed in space

• They orbit the earth once every 12 hours

at an extremely fast rate of roughly 7,000

miles per hour

• The satellites are evenly spread out so

that the four satellites are accessible via

direct-line-of-sight from anywhere on the

globe

4.1 LIFE ON GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

LAND IMPOSES UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS

METHODOLOGY

• The coordinates of the different locations around UST were determined by using a

GPS.

• 4 groups were assigned to determine the coordinates by using a Garmin

GPSmap76CSx receiver, while the rest of the groups made use of the built-in GPS

found in the smartphones.

A. B.

4.1 LIFE ON GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

LAND IMPOSES UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS

TRIANGULATION

• Each GPS satellite broadcasts a message that

includes the satellite’s current position, orbit

and exact time

• A GPS receiver combines the broadcasts from

multiple satellites to calculate its exact position

using a process called triangulation. A. B.

• Triangulation involves the determination of the

distances of at least three GPS satellites from

the user's GPS receiver. The positions of the

satellites in space are known all the time by

means of various observational methods and

orbital computational methods.

Location Group 7 Group 1 Group 6 Group 5

School 120⁰59’16.7“ E 120⁰59’09.5“ E 120⁰59’08.9“ E 120⁰59’14.2“ E

120⁰59’18.1“ E 120⁰59’13.0“ E 120⁰59’13.1“ E 120⁰59’18.1“ E

120⁰59’24.7“ E 120⁰59’20.0“ E 120⁰59’20.6“ E 120⁰59’25.2“ E

120⁰59’16.7“ E 120⁰59’11.6“ E 120⁰59’11.2“ E 120⁰59’6.3“ E

120⁰59’16.7“ E 120⁰59’25.1“ E 120⁰59’25.0“ E 120⁰59’30.1“ E

120⁰59’27.0“ E 120⁰59’21.8“ E 120⁰59’21.8“ E 120⁰59’27.1“ E

120⁰59’16.7“ E 120⁰59’15.8“ E 120⁰59’15.5“ E 120⁰59’20.9“ E

120⁰59’16.7“ E 120⁰59’13.4“ E 120⁰59’13.4“ E 120⁰59’18.4“ E

120⁰59’21.8“ E 120⁰59’16.5“ E 120⁰59’16.5“ E 120⁰59’21.7“ E

120⁰59’31.1“ E 120⁰59’26.3“ E 120⁰59’26.6“ E 120⁰59’31.5“ E

Location Group 4 Group 3 Group 8 Group 2 Group 9

School 120⁰59’14“ E 120⁰59’14“ E 120⁰59’14“ E 120⁰59’14“ E 120⁰59’14“ E

120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E

120⁰59’26“ E 120⁰59’26“ E 120⁰59’25“ E 120⁰59’25“ E 120⁰59’25“ E

120⁰59’15“ E 120⁰59’16“ E 120⁰59’16“ E 120⁰59’16“ E 120⁰59’17“ E

120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’30“ E

120⁰59’27“ E 120⁰59’27“ E 120⁰59’27“ E 120⁰59’27“ E 120⁰59’26“ E

120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’19“ E 120⁰59’21“ E 120⁰59’21“ E 120⁰59’20“ E

120⁰59’15“ E 120⁰59’15“ E 120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E

120⁰59’22“ E 120⁰59’22“ E 120⁰59’22“ E 120⁰59’22“ E 120⁰59’21“ E

120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’30“ E 120⁰59’30“ E 120⁰59’31“ E

STANDARD DEVIATIONS IN SECONDS

Latitudes

GRADUATE UMBRELLA CAL-1 MAMA GRAND

SCHOOL RACK IN USTH MARY RING STATUE ARCH OF THE STAND CHAPEL BEATO

STATUE LIBRARY SIGNAGE GROTTO IN IPEA CENTURIES STAGE BELLS STATUE GATE 1

Garmi GPS

device 3.55 3.12 3.61 3.09 2.48 3.18 3.17 2.56 3.26 3.02

Smartphone

application 1.41 0.55 0.55 0.84 0.55 0 1.09 2.19 0.45 1.52

Longitudes

GRADUATE UMBRELLA CAL-1 MAMA GRAND

SCHOOL RACK IN USTH MARY RING STATUE ARCH OF THE STAND CHAPEL BEATO

STATUE LIBRARY SIGNAGE GROTTO IN IPEA CENTURIES STAGE BELLS STATUE GATE 1

Garmin GPS

device 3.76 2.92 2.70 4.25 5.55 3.03 2.5 2.49 3.03 2.81

Smartphone

application 0 0 0.35 0.71 0.45 0.45 1.30 1.64 0.45 0.35

4.1 LIFE ON GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

LAND IMPOSES UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS

DISCUSSION

combination of latitude and longitude

from the equator, which is 0 degrees. The

north and south poles are at 90 degrees in

either direction. The prime meridian is 0

A. B.

degrees longitude and the locations are

measured according to 90 degrees east or

west from that point

• Degrees of latitude and longitude can be

further subdivided into minutes and seconds:

there are 60 minutes (') per degree, and 60

seconds (") per minute.

4.1 LIFE ON GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

LAND IMPOSES UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS

CONCLUSION

of a specific location

● The coordinates given by the different groups varied because of the lack of

consistency in standing at the exact location when reading the coordinates

given by the receivers. A. B.

● There is also the difference in accuracy in transmitting and receiving between

the GPS in the iphone and the handheld GPSmap76CS

● Based on the results, the built-in GPS in the smartphone is more precise

compared to the use of a hand-held GPS

REFERENCES

1. Damani, A., Shah, H., Shah, K., & Vala, M. (2015). Global

Positioning System for Object Tracking. International

Journal of Computer Applications, 109(8), 40-45.

doi:10.5120/19211-0994

2. Global Positioning System (GPS). (n.d.). AccessScience.

doi:10.1036/1097-8542.yb000730

3. NASA. (2017). Global positioning system. Retrieved

from: https:// www.nasa.gov/ directorates/ heo/ scan/

communications/ policy/ GPS.html

4. Maddison, R., & Mhurchu, C. N. (2009). Global positioning

system: A new opportunity in physical activity

measurement. International Journal of Behavioral

Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6(1), 73.

doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-73

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