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# 4.

## 1 LIFE ON GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

LAND IMPOSES UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
• First developed for military purposes
during the 1970’s and expanded into
civilian use over the next few decades
• Used to determine the ground position of
an object
A. B.
• The GPS system includes 24 satellites
deployed in space
• They orbit the earth once every 12 hours
at an extremely fast rate of roughly 7,000
miles per hour
• The satellites are evenly spread out so
that the four satellites are accessible via
direct-line-of-sight from anywhere on the
globe
4.1 LIFE ON GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
LAND IMPOSES UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS
METHODOLOGY
• The coordinates of the different locations around UST were determined by using a
GPS.
• 4 groups were assigned to determine the coordinates by using a Garmin
GPSmap76CSx receiver, while the rest of the groups made use of the built-in GPS
found in the smartphones.
A. B.
4.1 LIFE ON GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
LAND IMPOSES UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS
TRIANGULATION
• Each GPS satellite broadcasts a message that
includes the satellite’s current position, orbit
and exact time
multiple satellites to calculate its exact position
using a process called triangulation. A. B.
• Triangulation involves the determination of the
distances of at least three GPS satellites from
the user's GPS receiver. The positions of the
satellites in space are known all the time by
means of various observational methods and
orbital computational methods.
Location Group 7 Group 1 Group 6 Group 5

## 1. Statue in Graduate 14⁰36’36.6” N 14⁰36’43.4” N 14⁰36’43.1” N 14⁰36’37.7” N

School 120⁰59’16.7“ E 120⁰59’09.5“ E 120⁰59’08.9“ E 120⁰59’14.2“ E

## 2. Umbrella rack in library 14⁰36’39.7” N 14⁰36’45.4” N 14⁰36’44.9” N 14⁰36’39.8” N

120⁰59’18.1“ E 120⁰59’13.0“ E 120⁰59’13.1“ E 120⁰59’18.1“ E

## 3. USTH signage 14⁰36’38.4” N 14⁰36’43.5” N 14⁰36’45.4” N 14⁰36’38.3” N

120⁰59’24.7“ E 120⁰59’20.0“ E 120⁰59’20.6“ E 120⁰59’25.2“ E

## 4.Grotto beside CAL 1 14⁰36’36.6” N 14⁰36’42.0” N 14⁰36’42.0” N 14⁰36’36.7” N

120⁰59’16.7“ E 120⁰59’11.6“ E 120⁰59’11.2“ E 120⁰59’6.3“ E

## 5. Ring statue in IPEA 14⁰36’36.6” N 14⁰36’37.8” N 14⁰36’37.4” N 14⁰36’32.4” N

120⁰59’16.7“ E 120⁰59’25.1“ E 120⁰59’25.0“ E 120⁰59’30.1“ E

## 6. Arch of the Century 14⁰36’30.2” N 14⁰36’35.7” N 14⁰36’35.7” N 14⁰36’30.2” N

120⁰59’27.0“ E 120⁰59’21.8“ E 120⁰59’21.8“ E 120⁰59’27.1“ E

## 7. Grand Stand 14⁰36’36.6” N 14⁰36’34.3” N 14⁰36’34.2” N 14⁰36’29.1” N

120⁰59’16.7“ E 120⁰59’15.8“ E 120⁰59’15.5“ E 120⁰59’20.9“ E

## 8. Bells in front of chapel 14⁰36’36.6” N 14⁰36’37.8” N 14⁰36’37.8” N 14⁰36’32.4” N

120⁰59’16.7“ E 120⁰59’13.4“ E 120⁰59’13.4“ E 120⁰59’18.4“ E

## 9. Statue in Beato 14⁰36’26.9” N 14⁰36’32.7” N 14⁰36’32.5” N 14⁰36’27.0” N

120⁰59’21.8“ E 120⁰59’16.5“ E 120⁰59’16.5“ E 120⁰59’21.7“ E

## 10.Guard house in Gate 1 14⁰36’34.1” N 14⁰36’39.0” N 14⁰36’38.8” N 14⁰36’33.3” N

120⁰59’31.1“ E 120⁰59’26.3“ E 120⁰59’26.6“ E 120⁰59’31.5“ E

## Table 1: Coordinates using GPSmap76CSx

Location Group 4 Group 3 Group 8 Group 2 Group 9

## 1. Statue in Graduate 14⁰36’36” N 14⁰36’35” N 14⁰36’38” N 14⁰36’38” N 14⁰36’38” N

School 120⁰59’14“ E 120⁰59’14“ E 120⁰59’14“ E 120⁰59’14“ E 120⁰59’14“ E

## 2. Umbrella rack in library 14⁰36’40” N 14⁰36’39” N 14⁰36’40” N 14⁰36’40” N 14⁰36’39” N

120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E

## 3. USTH signage 14⁰36’38” N 14⁰36’39” N 14⁰36’39” N 14⁰36’39” N 14⁰36’38” N

120⁰59’26“ E 120⁰59’26“ E 120⁰59’25“ E 120⁰59’25“ E 120⁰59’25“ E

## 4. Grotto beside CAL 1 14⁰36’38” N 14⁰36’38” N 14⁰36’37” N 14⁰36’37” N 14⁰36’36” N

120⁰59’15“ E 120⁰59’16“ E 120⁰59’16“ E 120⁰59’16“ E 120⁰59’17“ E

## 5. Ring statue in IPEA 14⁰36’31” N 14⁰36’32” N 14⁰36’32” N 14⁰36’32” N 14⁰36’31” N

120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’30“ E

## 6. Arch of the Century 14⁰36’30” N 14⁰36’30” N 14⁰36’30” N 14⁰36’30” N 14⁰36’30” N

120⁰59’27“ E 120⁰59’27“ E 120⁰59’27“ E 120⁰59’27“ E 120⁰59’26“ E

## 7. Grand Stand 14⁰36’31” N 14⁰36’31” N 14⁰36’29” N 14⁰36’29” N 14⁰36’29” N

120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’19“ E 120⁰59’21“ E 120⁰59’21“ E 120⁰59’20“ E

## 8. Bells in front of chapel 14⁰36’28” N 14⁰36’28” N 14⁰36’32” N 14⁰36’32” N 14⁰36’32” N

120⁰59’15“ E 120⁰59’15“ E 120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E 120⁰59’18“ E

## 9. Statue in Beato 14⁰36’27” N 14⁰36’27” N 14⁰36’27” N 14⁰36’27” N 14⁰36’26” N

120⁰59’22“ E 120⁰59’22“ E 120⁰59’22“ E 120⁰59’22“ E 120⁰59’21“ E

## 10. Guard house in Gate 1 14⁰36’34” N 14⁰36’33” N 14⁰36’31” N 14⁰36’31” N 14⁰36’34” N

120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’31“ E 120⁰59’30“ E 120⁰59’30“ E 120⁰59’31“ E

## Table 2: Coordinates using GPS application in Iphone

STANDARD DEVIATIONS IN SECONDS

Latitudes
SCHOOL RACK IN USTH MARY RING STATUE ARCH OF THE STAND CHAPEL BEATO
STATUE LIBRARY SIGNAGE GROTTO IN IPEA CENTURIES STAGE BELLS STATUE GATE 1

Garmi GPS
device 3.55 3.12 3.61 3.09 2.48 3.18 3.17 2.56 3.26 3.02
Smartphone
application 1.41 0.55 0.55 0.84 0.55 0 1.09 2.19 0.45 1.52

Longitudes
SCHOOL RACK IN USTH MARY RING STATUE ARCH OF THE STAND CHAPEL BEATO
STATUE LIBRARY SIGNAGE GROTTO IN IPEA CENTURIES STAGE BELLS STATUE GATE 1

Garmin GPS
device 3.76 2.92 2.70 4.25 5.55 3.03 2.5 2.49 3.03 2.81
Smartphone
application 0 0 0.35 0.71 0.45 0.45 1.30 1.64 0.45 0.35
4.1 LIFE ON GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
LAND IMPOSES UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS
DISCUSSION

## • Coordinates are usually expressed as the

combination of latitude and longitude

## • Latitude is a measure of degrees of distance

from the equator, which is 0 degrees. The
north and south poles are at 90 degrees in
either direction. The prime meridian is 0
A. B.
degrees longitude and the locations are
measured according to 90 degrees east or
west from that point
• Degrees of latitude and longitude can be
further subdivided into minutes and seconds:
there are 60 minutes (') per degree, and 60
seconds (") per minute.
4.1 LIFE ON GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
LAND IMPOSES UNIQUE CONSTRAINTS
CONCLUSION

## ● GPS or Global Positioning system is very useful in determining the coordinates

of a specific location
● The coordinates given by the different groups varied because of the lack of
consistency in standing at the exact location when reading the coordinates
given by the receivers. A. B.
● There is also the difference in accuracy in transmitting and receiving between
the GPS in the iphone and the handheld GPSmap76CS
● Based on the results, the built-in GPS in the smartphone is more precise
compared to the use of a hand-held GPS
REFERENCES

1. Damani, A., Shah, H., Shah, K., & Vala, M. (2015). Global
Positioning System for Object Tracking. International
Journal of Computer Applications, 109(8), 40-45.
doi:10.5120/19211-0994
2. Global Positioning System (GPS). (n.d.). AccessScience.
doi:10.1036/1097-8542.yb000730
3. NASA. (2017). Global positioning system. Retrieved
from: https:// www.nasa.gov/ directorates/ heo/ scan/
communications/ policy/ GPS.html
4. Maddison, R., & Mhurchu, C. N. (2009). Global positioning
system: A new opportunity in physical activity
measurement. International Journal of Behavioral
Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6(1), 73.
doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-73