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diameter of the circle or disc cut out by the

blade tips.

Pitch (P) :If the propeller is assumed to work in

an unyielding fluid, then in one revolution of

the shaft the propeller will move forward a

distance which is known as the pitch.

Pitch Ratio (p): or face pitch ratio is the face

pitch divided by the diameter. Thus

p=P/D

Theoretical Speed (VT):is the distance the

propeller would advance in unit time if

working in an unyielding fluid.

Apparent Slip: Since the propeller works in

water, the ship speed V will normally be less

than the theoretical speed. The difference

between the two speeds is known as the

apparent slip.

Wake: In its passage through the water the ship

sets in motion particles of water in its

neighbourhood, caused, by friction between

the hull and the water. This moving water is

known as the wake.

Speed Of Advance (Va):The speed of the ship

relative to the wake is termed the SPEED OF

ADVANCE Va.

Real Slip Or True Slip: It is the difference

between the theoretical speed and the speed

of advance.

• Thrust: The thrust exerted by a propeller may

be calculated approximately by regarding the

propeller as a reaction machine.

Thrust T = M x a

M -Mass of water passing through disc in one

second.

a- Acceleration

RELATION BETWEEN POWERS

The mechanical efficiency of the engine is usually between

about 80% and 90% and therefore only this percentage of the ip

is transmitted to the shaft, giving the shaft power sp or brake

power bp.

sp or bp = ip x mechanical efficiency

• Shaft losses vary between about 3% and 5%

and therefore the power delivered to the

propeller, the delivered power dp, is almost

95% of the sp.

dp = sp x transmission efficiency

• The propeller has an efficiency of 60 % to 70%

and hence the thrust power tp is given by:

tp = dp x propeller efficiency

• The thrust power will therefore differ from the

effective power. The ratio of ep to tp is known

as the hull efficiency.

ep = tp x hull efficiency

• In an attempt to estimate the power required

by the machinery from the calculation of ep, a

quasi propulsive coefficient QPC is introduced.

This is the ratio of ep to dp and obviates the

use of hull efficiency and propeller efficiency.

ep=dp x QPC

CAVITATION

• The net pressure at any point on the back of the blade is

the algebraic sum of the atmospheric pressure, water

pressure and negative pressure or suction caused by the

thrust.

• When this suction is high at any point, the net pressure

may fall below the vapour pressure of the water at water

temperature, causing a cavity or bubble to form on the

blade.

• This cavity is filled with water vapour and with air which

disassociates from the sea water.

• As the blade turns, the bubble moves across the blade to a

point where the net pressure is higher, causing the cavity to

collapse.

• The forming and collapsing of these cavities is known as

cavitations.

MEASUREMENT OF PITCH

• If the propeller is assumed to have no forward

motion, then a point on the blade, distance R

from the centre of boss will move a distance of

2rR in one revolution.

• If the propeller is now assumed to work in an

unyielding fluid, then in one revolution it will

advance a distance of P, the pitch.

• The pitch angle θ may be defined as

MEASUREMENT OF PITCH

Relation between mean pressure and

speed

• The effective power ‘P’ of a diesel engine is

proportional to the mean effective pressure

pe and engine speed ‘n’, i.e. when using ‘c’ as

a constant:

P = c × pe × n

• for constant mep, the power is proportional to the

speed:

P = c × n1 (for constant mep)

• When running with a Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP), the

power may be expressed according to the propeller law

as:

P = c × n3 (propeller law)

• Thus, for the above examples, the power P may be

expressed as a power function of the speed ‘n’ to the

power of ‘i’, i.e.:

P = c × ni

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