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# Doppler Weather

G.VISWANATHAN
gemsvi@yahoo.com
DWR Calibration
How DWR works & what constitute the radar
data
Measurement Accuracy, Precision ,Bias
 Antenna,Rx Sensitivity, Tx Power,Signal
Processing
Calibration vs Validation
Z estimate Validation
Doppler Velocity Validation
Gauge
R A D A R TA R G E T S

H A R D TA R G E T S O FT TA R G E T

## D istin ct re fle ctin g ta rg e ts D istrib u te d ta rg e ts like h yd ro

sm a ll e n o u g h n o t to fill th e m e te o rs o r tu rb u le n t m e d iu m
b e a m ( Po in t ta rg e t) w h ich fills th e b e a m .
( Volume reflectivity )
R
3.R

Ct/2
C /2

Range : C /2 Doppler: 1/ T, where T is Integration
Angle : Time
3.R
SPATIO TEMPORAL SAMPLING OF DYNAMIC WEATHER PHENOMENA
BY DWR IN A HEMISPHERICAL VOLUME OF SPACE AROUND RADAR

θ 3xR ∆ r θ 3xR
= ∆ v

1 2 3
∆ r=c/2fs IPP=T=1/prf
Raw Data @ I/Q level, or Signal
Base Data – or – Moment Data
(Z,V,σ )
Derived Products, like Rain
Rate(R)
H Pol radars depend on emperical
exponential, Z-R relationship,
BASE PRODUCTS OF THE DWR ARE THE THREE MOMENTS OF THE TIME
SERIES THUS GENERATED-
Z = Precipitation Intensity is the area under the curve of Doppler
Velocity Spectrum for an incremental volume of space as seen by the
Radar resolution elements,∆ v=( θ 3 R)2(∆ R) & filled with
Hydrometeors and
is estimated from the 0th moment of the Time Series generated
VD= Mean Doppler Velocity of the Hydrometeors in the resolution
volume &
is estimated from the First Moment of the Time Series.

## σ = Spectrum Width of Doppler Spectrum &

is estimated from the Second Momentof the Time Series.

where
θ 3 = Beam width
∆ R = Range resolution
R = Range to the V
volume element
σ
Z

Accuracy, Precision,
Resolution
Neither Precise but
precise nor not accurate
accurate

* * *
*
* *
***
***
***
* * * *

## Accurate but Accurate &

not precise Precise

***
***
***
*** *** ***
Measurement Accuracy
A ccu ra cy
Frames of Reference for

Z Target
T position

Zg Tropo Centric Frame r P(r, , )
 = @ t
X
Xt El
, , h N
Yt 
Y
=
Xg Az
r = Slant range or radial distance
Origin (Kms)
Earth Centre
 = Elevation angle [measured from
Yg local horizon (mils)]
Geocentric  = Azimuth Angle [measured clock
Frame wise from North (mils)]
Elevation(-2 to+30deg)
Azimuth for Each Elevation (0-
360deg)
Range ( in terms of Range Bin) for
each Azimuth
Data values(say Z,V,) for each Range
Bin
DWR Hardware
Calibration
the signal power received in terms
of the System level parameters of the radar
and the backscattering cross section of the
target, in this case the hydrometeors in a
cloud.
It can be written in a simpler form as follows:
 Sr = KZ/(R*R)
Where K is known as the Radar Constant

##  Z is precipitation intensity in sample

volume
 R is Slant range to Target in a given Az
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL
EXPERIMENT
Lat: 13.664
13.7
Lon: 80.227

  13.6

13.5
Shar

Lat: 13.374
Lat: 13.374

(g
)d
tiu
e L
a

## Lat: 13.664 13.2

13.1

Lon: 80.227
Lat: 13.083

13 Lon: 80.289

Lat: 13.083
80.00 80.10 80.20 80.30 80.40 80.50
Longitude(deg)
CDR

Lon: 80.289

IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
DWR at SDSC SHAR
10 MHz ref Pulse/CW

EXT . SIMULATOR

RF FRONT END

## IFA & FILTER Cable, Down LNA P IN Directional. TRL

Az RJ Converter Coupler feed

## Base band Down I 2 x ADC I DSP dBm (P OUT ) / dBZ

Conversion
Q Q

Figure 2. Experimental setup at DWR-SHAR for calibrating receive chain dynamic range.
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
CDR, SHAR - LP

100

90

80
Reflectivity(dBZ)

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

-10
-120 -110 -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0

Input power(dBm)

## DWR, SHAR CDR, Chennai

IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT

The radius of the metal sphere considered in
Spherecal is 15 cms. Radar cross section of this
metal sphere falls close to optical region as shown
in the calculations below:
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT

. Launching of metal sphere from SHAR for spherecal experiment. Also shown I

s the video output of metal sphere. Upper trace is log video and lower trace is linear output

IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
Joint CAL-VAL Committee of IMD-ISRO

Prof.G.S,Bhat-CAOS/IISc Chairman
Mr.SK.Banerji- IMD HQ Member
Mr.SK.Kundu- IMD HQ Member
Mr.S.Venkateswarlu-IMD Member
Dr.B.Manikiam-ISRO HQ Member
Dr.GV.Rama- ISRO SHAR Member
Data Analysis ably assisted by Mrs.Anitha

Daniel,Subbu,&Vikas
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
SHAR-2006_10_28_16_31_10 Comparison of PPI-Z @ Elevation 1.0

CDR-2006_10_28_16_30_29_72

SHAR
22
CDR-2006_10_28_16_30_29_72

PPI (Z) comparison of SHAR and Chennai DWRs before applying the corrections
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
2006_10_28_19_36_28
Comparison of PPI-Z @ Ele 1

CDR-2006_10_28_19_34_01

Figure 8. c)PPI (Z) comparison of SHAR and Chennai DWRs before applying the correction.
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
2006_10_28_19_36_28
Comparison of PPI-Z @ Ele 1 after added bias +5dB to
SHAR
CDR-2006_10_28_19_34_01

25 SHAR

Figure 8. d)PPI (Z) comparison of SHAR and Chennai DWRs after applying the correction.
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
Scatter Figure 11. a) Scatter plot of cloud
reflectivity of SHAR and Chennai DWRs without
correction.
Figure 11. b) Scatter plot of cloud reflectivity of
SHAR and Chennai DWRs with correction (added
+2dBz to SHAR and –3dBz to Chennai data).
Subsequently an inter comparison between
SHAR DWR and TRMM – (Joint PR-
TMI )revealed that SHAR – DWR makes an
under estimate of ~5-6dB
Most likely cause is the difference in Antenna
gain as measured in Test range(Without
Bends& twists) & the effective gain after
field installation, namely plumbing losses)
In the production version of the radar WG
plumbing is optimized by welding /brazing
WG components with out using standard
flanges etc.
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT S
catterplo
t_with
outc
o rre
ctio
n
6
0

5
5

5
0

4
5

CDR(Z)
4
0

3
5

3
0
2
5
2
0 y=0
.88
02x+5
.04
63
1
5

1
0

0
0 5 1
0 1
5 2
0 2
5 3
0 3
5 4
0 4
5 5
0 5
5 6
0
S
HAR
(Z)

Figure 11. a) Scatter plot of cloud reflectivity of SHAR and Chennai DWRs without correction.

Sc
a tte
rplot_
w ith
corre
ctio
n
a
dde
d2d
B ztoS
ztoC D R
6
0
5
5
5
0
4
5
CDR(Z)

4
0
3
5
3
0
2
5
2
0 y=0
.88
02x+0
.28
6
1
5
1
0
5
0
0 5 1
0 1
5 2
0 2
5 3
0 3
5 4
0 4
5 5
0 5
5 6
0
S
H A
R(Z
)

Figure 11. b) Scatter plot of cloud reflectivity of SHAR and Chennai DWRs with correction (added +2dBz to
SHAR and –3dBz to Chennai data).
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT

DWR-SHAR DWR-CDR

120.00

100.00
Rain Acc.(mm/day)

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

0.00
80.26 80.10 80.20 80.30 80.40 80.05 80.08 80.35 80.15

Middle points

## Figure 12. Histogram of rain accumulation of both radars at equidistant locations.

IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
Rain Acc. comparison between gauge and radar

## Raingauge DWR-SHAR DWR-CDR

180
160
Rain Acc.(mm/day)

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Sulurpet Gudur Nellore Nungambakkam
Gauge locations

Figure 13. Histogram of daily rainfall measured by rain gauges and DWRs.
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
4. Conclusions
For the Committee Members, visit to the radar
sites and seeing DWRs in operation was an
calibration experiments could be successfully
carried out because IMD and ISRAD teams
worked together as one unit with lot of
understanding and full cooperation. This spirit
should continue. Some important conclusions
from calibrations carried out are as follows.

IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
SHAR_2006_10_29_05_35_28 CDR_2006_10_29_05_33_55

(Note: The cyclone crossed Nellore. Since the cyclone is north of both the DWRs
similar velocity patterns are seen by both the DWRs.
IMD-ISRO CAL-VAL EXPERIMENT
 The response of the receive chain sub-system of both the DWRs (forward
of the LNA input point) is linear over a dynamic range of ~100 dB. The
repeatability is excellent. The performance of this sub-system is as per
the design specifications.
 The measured radar constant based on metal sphere calibration differs
from the values being used at present by +1.57 dB and +0.87 dB
respectively for Chennai and SHAR DWRs. These numbers are based
on the maximum value of Z measured during Spherecalexperiment at a
given range of the sphere.
 Suncal results show that the measured antenna gain differs from the values
being used at present by +1.4 dB and -0.9 dB respectively for the
Chennai and SHAR DWRs. The measurement uncertainty in Suncal
experiment is ±1 dB, and the observed differences are within or close to
this limi
 Radar derived daily rain accumulations are consistently lower than that
measured by the rain gauges. The Z-R relationships used were
developed for the mid-latitude systems. Perhaps, these relations need
re-evaluation for the Indian cloud systems.
 The intercomparison of Z products in areas that are almost equi-distant
from two radars and in volumes having some overlap show that there is
a difference of about 4 to 6 dB between the two radars with Chennai
values being higher. Even among radars of the same make, differences
of 2-3 dB are common.
IMD
All networked DWR’s to be Calibrated
periodically as per well laid out procedure.
Sun Cal to be once in 3 months & sphere Cal
every 6 months
Each DWR to be supported by a network of fast
response TM Rain Gauges
Atleast Two Distrometers to be part of Rain
Gauge network
IMD to organize a DWR CAL-VAL workshop once
a year, with participation of Designers,
IMD,ISRO, Mnfrs, Modelers & Researchers in