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PHENOMENOLOGY OF TEEN

DEPRESSION AMONG
JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
IN
HOLY TRINITY UNIVERSITY,
PUERTO PRINCESA CITY, PALAWAN

PRESENTED BY:
CHARMAE E. EMPIG
CHAPTER 1
 Background of the Study
- Depression is one of among the most common mental
disorders that develop during adolescence and if left
untreated or did not received enough intervention may
sometimes leads to suicide.

- According to World Health Organization (WHO, 2018),


mental health conditions starts by 14 years old but most
cases are undetected and untreated. Depression is one of
the leading causes of illness and disability among
adolescents worldwide while the third leading cause of
death in15 – 19 year olds is suicide.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY (CONT.)
 Philippines have the highest number of depressed people in
Southeast Asia as reported by the Philippine Star, a news
agency in the country (Guzman, 2018)

 in 2017, Mental Health Act has been filed and has been
approved by President Rodrigo R. Duterte in June 20, 2018
and became a Mental Health Law (Official Gazette, 2018)

 There is no assurance or evidence that the stigma about


mental health is diminishing in the present time despite
the fact that perceptions of Filipinos about mental illness
especially to Depression are widely studied across the
country and the world. Moreover, there is great opportunity
to broaden the scope of published researches regarding to
Filipinos awareness and understanding of Depression
among youth and this might help unfolding the
perpetuated stigma about depression.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
 Depression DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria
- outlines the following criterion to make a diagnosis of depression

 Risk Factors for Depression According to Psychiatry


 Biochemistry, genetics, personality and environmental factors can play a role in
depression:

 Behavioral Approach to Depression


Depression is caused by the removal of positive reinforcement from the environment

 Cognitive Approach to Depression


It assumes changes in thinking precede (i.e. come before) the onset of depressed mood.

 Learned Helplessness Theory


Depression occurs when a person learns that their attempts to escape negative
situations make no difference. As a consequence they become passive and will endure
aversive stimuli or environments even when escape is possible.

 Mental Health Stigma Theory


It includes an integrative theoretical model, incorporating the vantage point of the social
perceiver (the person doing the stigmatizing) and the target (the experiencer) of that
stigma.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
"Them"
Holy Trinity
University
Students
Perspective to
Depression

Phenomelogy
of Teen
Depression
"Us"
Adolescents
experiencing
Symptomatic
Depression
Perspective
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
 This study aims to determine the perspective of adolescent
students in Holy Trinity University regarding to Teen Depression.

1. What are the profile of respondents in Holy Trinity University in


terms of sex classification, grade level, economic status, religion,
and Beck’s Depression Inventory scores?

2. Is there a significant difference between the perspective of


students from low scorers and high scorer’s group?
2a.There is a significant difference between the perspective
of students from low scorers and high scorer’s group.
2b.There is no significant difference between the
perspective of students from low scorers and high scorer’s group.

3. What are perspectives of students regarding to the interpretation


of their BDI Scores?
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
 The researchers expected the participants to be responsive in
answering the survey and willing to do the interview if they
are encouraged by their adviser and school administrators.

 Gathered data thru survey are reflection of awareness,


opinion, and real life experiences of the students.

 It is expected to gather varied perspectives and different


opinions regarding to Depression during the interview.

 Positive and negative opinions about depression and


depressed teenagers may arise.

 The researchers also assumed that the participating students


will answer the survey and convey their ideas in the interview
with honesty and to the best of their abilities.
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
 Scope of the study
- covered period: June 01 -November 30, 2019. (6 months)
- Survey sample size: 230 students (Junior and Senior High School)
- Interview: 10 students (low scorer’s group and high scorer’s group)
- All respondents are bona fide students of Holy Trinity University.

 Research limitations
1. Result of the study only covers the population of Holy Trinity
University.

2.The result will only reflect the perspective of students enrolled in a


private and a lone co-ed catholic school in Puerto Princesa City,
Palawan.

3. Moreover, the researcher’s biases and perceptual misrepresentations


may unintentionally appear during the Interview as unstructured
kind of interview will be used.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
 This research will bring new perspective in the
research field of Depression, adolescent mental
health, social and educational factor to this fatal
condition.
 The finding of this research offer contextualized
statistics of teen depression in the locality of Puerto
Princesa City, Palawan.
 This may help health workers, parents, and school
administrators to understand the conditions of
adolescents with symptomatic depression.
 On the other hand, having an evident adolescent way
of thinking towards depression may help the
community, schools and families create an effective
intervention program for adolescents at risk of
developing symptomatic depression.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
 Definitions shall be adopted the way researchers used in operation also called as
‘Operational Terms’. For the purposes of this study, the following terms shall mean:
 Diagnosed Depression - this is a condition that met the criteria of DSM V which
indicates that a person having this type of depression requires clinical attention.

 Symptomatic Depression - to direct the efforts or attention of oneself to one


particular situation, person; to deal with; to give solution to the present problem.

 Adolescents - a person within the age group of 12 to 19 years old, experiencing


puberty, synonymous to teen.

 Phenomenology - the study of the development of human consciousness and self-


awareness as a preface to or a part of philosophy

 Mental Health - the condition of being sound mentally and emotionally that is
characterized by the absence of mental illness.

 Mental Illness - any of the broad range of medical conditions that are marked
primarily by sufficient disorganization of personality, mind or emotions to impair normal
psychological functioning.

 Stigma - a set of negative and often unfair beliefs that a society or group of
people have about something.
CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
 TEEN DEPRESSION
The teenage years are a period of rapid and intense physical and emotional change. Even
well-adjusted teens sometimes feel they are on an emotional roller coaster, happy and
excited one minute, down the next. Because of this, it is often hard to know when a
teenager has crossed the line from normal feelings of adolescent turmoil to depression
(Wolff, 1999)

 PROBLEMS WITH DIAGNOSING TEEN DEPRESSION


 depression is particularly hard to diagnose, and teens—who more than any other age group
want to “fit in”—work especially hard at hiding their feelings. Adults may interpret teens
behavior as sign of rebellion and generation trends.

 DEPRESSION IN YOUNG PEOPLE


 Adolescent depression may affect the teen's socialization, family relations, and performance
at school, often with potentially serious long-term consequences. Depression in young
people may be expressed differently from that in adults, with manifest behavioral disorders
(e.g. irritability, verbal aggression and misconduct), substance abuse and/or concurrent
psychiatric problems.

 DEPRESSION & SUICIDE IN THE PHILIPPINES


 Official suicide rates are lower in the Philippines than in many other countries in the
Western Pacific region , although there is likely to be under-reporting because of its non-
acceptance by the Catholic church and the associated disgrace and stigma to the family
(PCP, 2003
CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
 Research Model
 This research will conducted using Mixed Methods
Phenomenological Research (MMPR). The term mixed
methods refers to an emergent methodology of research
that advances the systematic integration or mixing of
quantitative and qualitative data within a single
investigation or sustained program of inquiry. Mixed
methods research originated in the social sciences and has
recently expanded into the health and medical sciences.

 Participants
 The sample size will be determined using Sloven’s Formula
with 95% confidence level and 5% marginal error. However,
purposive sampling will be applied in selecting students in
interviewing target group. Only 10 students from low
scorer’s group and high scorer group in BDI will be invited
for the interview.
METHODOLOGY (CONT.)
 Data Collection and Analysis Method

 Phase 1: Quantitative Research Method


Data: T-Test will be use as tool for data sectioning
Analysis Data Analysis design: Two-way ANOVA
Softwate: SPSS

Phase 2: Qualitative Research Method


Data: Interview transcription
Analysis Data Analysis design: Thematic Analysis

Final Phase: Integration of results from Quantitative and


Qualitative Data Treatment using Explanatory Sequential
Mixed Method Approach to Phenomenology Research
RESEACH PARADIGM
Phase 1 Phase 2 Final Phase

• Sample size allocation • Sample size • Integration of


using Sloven’s allocation using result from
Formula Purposive Sampling quantitative and
qualitative data
• Random sampling will • Random sampling treatment in
be used as data will be used as data answering the
gathering approach approach Statement of the
Study
• Data treatment using • Data treatment
T-test using thematic
Analysis Approach
• Hypothesis testing
and validation using
2-way ANOVA in
SPSS

• Determine significant
factors of depression
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
“I’m ready to your constructive perusal and
recommendations for this research proposal”

-Cha 