You are on page 1of 14

Welding Inspection

Heat Treatments
Course Reference WIS 5
Heat Treatment of Steels
All heat treatments are basically cycles of three elements

 Heating

 Holding (soaking)

 Cooling

Post weld heat treatments are used to change the properties of


the weld metal, controlling the formation of structures
Pre heat treatments are used basically to increase weldabilty,
control expansion and contraction forces during welding.
Heat Treatments
The relevant variables for heat treatment process, which
must be carefully controlled are as follows.

 The heating rate

 Temperature attained

 The time at the attained


temperature (soak time)

 Cooling rate
Heat Treatment of Steels
The basic heat treatments are:

 Annealing  Normalising

 Hardening  Tempering

 Stress relieving  Pre-heating

The method of applying the heat to the material may vary from
procedure to procedure. e.g flame, electrical resistance and
furnaces
Heat Treatments
Annealing
 Temperature: 920oC hold for sufficient time
 Cooling: Furnace cool to 650oC then cool down in air
 Result: Produces a very soft, low hardness material
suitable for cold working or machining operations.
Decreases toughness and lowers yield stress
Normalising
 Temperature: 920oC hold for sufficient time
 Cooling: Slow cool in air
 Result: Relieves internal stresses improves mechanical
properties and increases toughness, grain refinement.
Heat Treatments
Quench Harden
 Temperature: 920oC hold for sufficient time
 Cooling: Fast cool, quench in water, oil.
 Result: Hardens carbon steels. After this
treatment the material is very hard and highly
stressed. The material is brittle but with high
tensile strength.

Tempering
 Temperature: 250 to 680oC hold for sufficient
time
 Cooling: Slow cool in air
 Result: Relieves residual stresses improves
mechanical properties and increases
toughness, may also be used to reduce
hydrogen levels
Heat Treatments
Stress Relief
 Temperature: 550 to 680oC hold for sufficient time
 Cooling: Slow cool in air.
 Result: Relieves residual stresses improves mechanical
properties and increases toughness, may also be used to
reduce hydrogen levels
Post Hydrogen Release
 Temperature: Approximately 250oC hold up to 10 hours
 Cooling: Slow cool in air
 Result: Relieves residual hydrogen
Pre Heat
We can preheat metals and alloys when welding for a
number of reasons. Primarily we use most pre-heats to
achieve one or more of the following:
1. To control the structure of the weld metal and HAZ on
cooling
2. To improve the diffusion of gas molecules through an
atomic structure.
3. To control the effects of expansion and contraction.

Preheat controls the formation of un-desirable microstructures that


are produced from rapid cooling of certain types of steels.
Martensite is an undesirable grain structure very hard and brittle it
is produced by rapid cooling form the austenite region.
Pre Heat
Preheat temperatures are arrived by taking into
consideration the following:

The heat input

The carbon equivalent (CE)

The combined material thickness

The hydrogen scale required (A, B, C, D)


Pre Heat Comparison Chart
200

180
175 150 125 100 75 50 20 0
Combined material thickness

160

140

120

100

80

60

40
A B C D E
20 0.43 0.45 0.47 0.53 0.55

0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

Heat input
Section Ref 14
Pre Heat
Advantages of preheat
 Slows down the cooling rate, which reduces the risk of
hardening
 Allows absorbed hydrogen a better opportunity of
diffusing out, thereby reducing the risk of cracking
 Removes moisture from the material being welded
 Improves overall fusion characteristics
 Lowers stresses between the weld metal and parent
material by ensuring a more uniform expansion and
contraction
Methods of Measuring Pre Heat
 Temperature indicating crayons (Tempil sticks)
 Thermocouples or touch pyrometers
 At intervals along of around the joint to be welded
 The number of measurements taken must allow the inspector
to be confident that the required temperature has been
reached
 In certain cases the preheat must be maintained a certain
distance back from the joint faces
 If a gas flame is being used for preheat application the
temperature should be taken form the opposite side to the
heat source
 If this is not possible time must be allowed before taking the
preheat temperature e.g 2 mins for 25mm thickness
Any Questions

Section Ref 18
Questions
QU 1. How can the levels of hardness be controlled in the
HAZ?
QU 2. What is the maximum recommended heat treatment
temperature for steel weldments?, state which heat
treatments may be considered when maximum toughness
is required
QU 3. What are the four main considerations for determining
preheat temperatures, and as a welding inspector which
factors require inspection when applying pre-heat to a
carbon steel joint to be welded?
QU 4. What factors need to be checked/controlled during a heat
treatment process
QU 5. Which heat treatment process is required when maximum
ductility is required for example for extensive cold working
operations.