What is a product? How can company built & manage it¶s product mix & product lines? How can a company make better brand decisions? How can packaging & labeling be used as marketing tool?

. . Product that can be marketed include ± .Persons.Places.Services. .Organizations.Product ± Product is anything that can be offered to market for attention. . acquisition. .Physical goods. . use or consumption that might satisfy a need or a want.Ideas.

 Packaging ± services ± advertising ± customer advice ± financing ± delivery arrangement ± warehousing & other things that people value.  Generic product ± basic version of the product.  Expected product ± a set of attributes & conditions that buyers normally expect & agree to. .  Augmented product ± additional services & benefits that distinguish the company offer from competitors.  Potential product ± possible evolution.Five levels of product ±  Core benefit ± fundamental service or benefit that the customer is really buying.

road. water.  Product family ± All the product classes that can satisfy a core need with reasonable effectiveness ± air.  Product lines ± A group of products within the product class that are closely related because they function in a similar manner or are sold to the same customer groups. are marketed through same type of outlets or fall within given price range ± two & three wheelers. .  Product class ± A group of products within the product family recognized as having certain functional coherence ± LCV.Product hierarchy ±  Need family ± The core need that underlies the product family ± transportation. HCV.

price. motorcycle.  Brand ± The name associated with one or more items in the product line. appearance.  Item ± A distinct unit within brand or product line distinguishable by size. . Product type ± those items within product line that share one of the several possible forms of the product ± scooter. attributes.

Shopping goods ± goods that the customer in process of selection & purchase characteristically compares on suitability. quality. Staple ± Impulse ± Emergency. price & style.  . II. immediately with minimum efforts.    Consumer goods classification ± Convenience goods ± goods usually bought frequently.Product classification ± I. Specialty goods ± goods with unique characteristics or brand identification for which significant group of buyers are habitually willing to make special purchasing efforts. According to their durability or tangibility ±  Non durable ±Durable ± Service.

Supplies & services ± short lasting goods that facilitate developing or managing finished product ± operating supplies ± maintenance & repair items ± services. Materials & parts ± goods that enter the manufacturers product completely. Industrial goods classification ±      . Raw material ± Farm ± Natural. Manufacture materials & parts ±  Component material ± component parts. Capital items ± Long lasting goods that facilitate developing & or managing finished product. III.Installation. . Unsought goods ± goods that consumer do not know about or knows about but does not normally think of buying.

 Product line market profile with competitors product line. Width ± Length ± Depth ± Consistency.  Product line analysis ±  Product line sales & profits. . Product line decisions ± It is a group of products that are closely related because they function in similar manner are sold to the same customer groups are marketed to the same type of outlets or fall within given price range. It is the set of all product lines & items that particular seller offers for sale to buyers.Product mix decision or product assortment.

 Product line length ±  Line stretching decisions. branding.  Line featuring decisions. distribution advertising.  Line modernization decision.  Line filling decisions.  Line pruning decisions.  Downward ± Upward ± Two way stretch. .  Product design. packaging & labeling & other marketing decisions such as pricing.  Product attribute decisions ±  Product quality.  Product features. promotion.  Individual product decisions ± decisions on product attributes.

Copyright ± the exclusive legal right to reproduce. Trade mark ± a brand or part of a brand that is given legal protection because it is capable of appropriation. b. which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers & to differentiate them from those of competitors. d. a. . musical work. distinctive color or lettering. e. publish & sell the matter. Brand name ± that part of a brand which can be vocalized or utter able. sign. design. A trade mark protects the seller¶s exclusive right to use brand name or brand mark. c. term. Brand decisions ± Brand a name. Brand mark ± that part of brand which can be recognized but is not utter able such as symbol. symbol or design or combination of them. literary.

. protects unique features & coping with competitors.Attributes .  To build corporate image. Segmenting the market. .Culture. Branding advantages ± Helps seller to process orders & trace down problems.    Brand convey up to six levels of meaning ± . . Legal protection.User. Attracting loyal & profitable set of customers.Values. .Personality.Benefits. .

Brand equity concept ± Brand awareness ± acceptability ± preference ± loyalty. ‡ Brand sponsorer decision ±  Who should sponsor the brand? Manufacturers ± Private ± Mixed brand.  Brand equity is a higher. higher the brand loyalty. trade marks & channel relationship. Brand ± no brand. strong brand association & other assets such as patents. name awareness. ‡ Brand decisions ±  Should a brand developed for a product. perceived quality. .

‡ Multi brand decisions ±  Should two or more brand be developed in same product category?  One brand or more than one brand ± new brand. ‡ Brand extension decision ±  Should other product given same brand name?  Brand extension ± Line extension ± No brand line extension.Brand decisions ±  Should each product be individually or family branded?  Individual ± Blanket family ± Separate family ± Company or individual names. .

Product Category Brand Name Existing New Line extension Multi brands Existing Brand extension New brands New .Brand repositioning decision ±  Should the brand be repositioned? .Brand repositioning ± no brand repositioning.

Establishing the packaging concept.Self service. Visual test.Secondary package.Primary package.  Packaging uses as a marketing tool ± . . . Dealer test. . .Putting through test. .Consumer affluence.Packaging & labeling decisions ±  Packaging is a activity of designing & producing the container or wrapper for a product. . . .Innovational opportunities.Labeling.Company & brand image. .Shipping package.Decision on packet design. o o o o Engineering test. .  Developing an effective package ± . Consumer test.

It grades the product. . It might promote product. It describes several things for product.Labeling ±     It identifies the product or brand.