Culture and Consumption

Basedon: McCracken: ´Culture and Consumption´

Agenda for today y Group presentation y Culture and consumption y From consumer research to marketing strategy y Questions for last week¶s class or the exa .

e.Consumption Studies ~ 1990? ‡goods carry meanings for everyday interactions (i. 2000 . communication) ‡ personal motives are shaped by society/culture Source: Østergaard and Jantzen.

Price. 2007 . Zinkhan.Understanding culture ‡ Culture: ´a society¶s dynamic blueprints for action and interpretations that enable a person to operate in a manner acceptable to other members of the culture´ Shared cultural templates for interpretation Cultural fields Consumption patterns Consumer goods Shared cultural blueprints for action Source: Arnould.

. ‡ In general: Consumption patterns . hobbies ‡ . experiences ‡ Interests...How is consumption a cultural phenomenon? ‡ Clothing ‡ Food ‡ Housing ‡ Holidays ‡ Everyday rituals and habits ‡ Events.

McCracken¶s Model of Movement of Cultural Meaning Culturally constituted world Art Fashion System Marketing communication system Consumer goods Consumer rituals Individual Consumers Locations of meanings Instruments of meaning transfer Source: McCracken. 1986 .

and consumer actions. . marketing communication. media. In this process. They both reflect and influence culture and cultural meanings ± this happens in a continuous. fashion systems. art.The dynamics of culture and consumption ± the movement of meanings Consumption objects carry symbolic meanings. self-referencing process. cultural meanings are moved between different locations of meaning by e.g.

interrelating (structure) Values Ideals Norms Beliefs . ranking.Culturally constituted world Templates for action and interpretation Cultural blueprints Habits Customs Rituals Cultural categories Cultural principles Help us define and organize our life world (system of social distinction) Time Space Nature Society People Allow grouping.

beliefs. and brotherhood ‡ Cultural categories reflect (and influence) such principles. and values. For example. ideals. A few examples of cultural principles are freedom. how would the values above influence our concept of society or nature? . equality.Culturalprinciples and categories ‡ Cultural principles can take the form of norms.

symbols ‡ Values ± enduring beliefs about desirable outcomes that transcends specific situations and shape behaviour ‡ Includes instrumental values ± beliefs about how people should behave ‡ Includes terminal values ± beliefs about desirable goals ‡ Norms ± informal. often unspoken rules that govern behaviour ‡ Cultural myths ± stories containing symbolic elements that express shared emotions and cultural values values ‡ Cultural symbols ± objects that represents beliefs and . myths.Cultural values.

consumption is a tangible manifestation of culture .Cultural fields ‡ Cultural fields are complex cultural categories ‡ Consumer goods and consumption patterns help define cultural fields ‡ From this perspective.

Vehicles for meaning transfer ‡ Marketing communication system ‡ Fashion system ‡ Entertainment ‡ Art ‡ News ‡ Reference groups .

etc. individual experience.g.Consumption meanings ‡ Consumer motives for consumption stem from the meaning of consumptions acts and objects. cultural myths.) . marketing communications. branding. Such meaning provides value ‡ Understanding consumers requires understanding of meaning and value ‡ There are many sources of meaning for consumption objects (e.

facilitating or perpetuating special feelings ‡ Social meanings ± negotiating meanings of ‡ Examples from everyday life? individuals and their place in their social setting .Types of meanings ‡ Utilitarian meanings ± perceived usefulness in terms of functionality or performance ‡ Sacred meanings ± supremely important/set aside ‡ Secular ± opposed to sacred meanings/´worldly´ in character ‡ Hedonic meanings ± associated.

Cultural rituals ‡ Behaviours that occur in a relatively fixed sequence and that tend to be repeated periodically ‡ Possession rituals ‡ Grooming rituals ‡ Divestment rituals ‡ Exchange rituals .

they also function as media of interpersonal communication ‡ Example: Christmas ‡ What do Christmas lights symbolize in western ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ cultures? Santa Claus? Do these symbols mean the same to us all? Could they loose their meanings? .Vehicles of communication ‡ When consumption objects have meaning to people.

and postmodernity in a European context ± how are these important to understanding consumer behaviour? . globalization.Discussion ‡ Describe examples of everyday consumption rituals (at least one example of each type) ‡ What is the relevance of knowing and analyzing such ritualistic behaviour? ‡ Discuss important cultural trends such as environmental concern.

concepts and models presented in this course to problems related to brand management.Exam Goals ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Explain and apply the key terms. Reflect incisively and critically over the underlying causes of the consumers¶ behaviour Apply the tools. and apply them in relation to the branding of actual products or services. concepts and models used in the study of consumer behaviour. cognitive and interpretive approaches to understanding consumer behaviour and the implications that this choice has on our interpretation of consumers' behaviour Demonstrate how as a marketer you can use your knowledge of consumer behaviour concepts to develop better branding programs and strategies to influence those behaviours. Differentiate between behavioural. Describe and analyse key trends in consumer behaviour. definitions. marketing communications and other forms of marketing exchange Synthesise and deduce new models that can be used to predict phenomena relevant to the study of consumer behaviour .

5. . The most important cultural forces affecting music consumption at the moment. Differences between different approaches to increasing sales. Trends in consumption and use of music. 3. Consumer needs and motivation. 4.Case exam ± Piresso Case 1. 2. Marketing implications.

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