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 The pixel (a word invented from "picture element") is the

basic unit of programmable color on a computer display or in

a computer image.

 Think of it as a logical - rather than a physical - unit.

◦ The physical size of a pixel depends on how you've set the resolution
for the display screen.

 If you've set the display to its maximum resolution, the

physical size of a pixel will equal the physical size of the dot
pitch (let's just call it the dot size) of the display.

 If, however, you've set the resolution to something less than

the maximum resolution, a pixel will be larger than the
physical size of the screen's dot (that is, a pixel will use more
than one dot).
 A pixel is represented by a dot or square on a computer monitor
display screen.
◦ Pixels are the basic building blocks of a digital image or display and are
created using geometric coordinates.

◦ Depending on the graphics card and display monitor, the quantity, size and
color combination of pixels varies and is measured in terms of the display

 For example, a computer with a display resolution of 1280 x 768

will produce a maximum of 98,3040 pixels on a display screen.
◦ Each pixel has a unique logical address, a size of eight bits or more and, in
most high-end display devices, the ability to project millions of different

 The pixel resolution spread also determines the quality of display;

◦ more pixels per inch of monitor screen yields better image results.
 The number of distinct colors that can be represented by a
pixel depends on the number of bits per pixel (bpp).

 A 1 bpp image uses 1-bit for each pixel, so each pixel can be
either on or off.

 Each additional bit doubles the number of colors available, so

a 2 bpp image can have 4 colors, and a 3 bpp image can have 8

 If we devise a formula for the calculation of total number of

combinations that can be made from bit, it would be like this.

◦ Where bpp denotes bits per pixel.

Bits per pixel Number of colors

1 bpp 2 colors (Monochrome)

2 bpp 4 colors
3 bpp 8 colors
4 bpp 16 colors
5 bpp 32 colors
6 bpp 64 colors
7 bpp 128 colors
8 bpp 256 colors
10 bpp 1024 colors
16 bpp 65536 colors (Highccolor)
24 bpp 16777216 colors (16.7 million colors) (Truecolor)

32 bpp 4294967296 colors (4294 million colors)

 For color depths of 15 or more bits per pixel, the depth is
normally the sum of the bits allocated to each of the red, green,
and blue components.

 Highcolor, usually meaning 16 bpp, normally has five bits for red
and blue, and six bits for green, as the human eye is more
sensitive to errors in green than in the other two primary colors.

◦ For applications involving transparency, the 16 bits may be divided into

five bits each of red, green, and blue, with one bit left for transparency.

 A 24-bit depth allows 8 bits per component.

 On some systems, 32-bit depth is available:

◦ this means that each 24-bit pixel has an extra 8 bits to describe
its opacity (for purposes of combining with another image).
 On your High Definition (HD) TV, you may have the
choice of 1080p mode and 1080i mode.

 Both modes offer the same pixel resolution: 1,920 x

1,080 (HxV).

 The difference is in the scan type they use.

 The p in 1080p stands for progressive scan, and the i in

1080i stands for interlaced.
Frame & field rates
 HD content is always broadcast at 30 frames per second.

 1080p content is played back at native frame rate, while 1080i is played back at
60 fields per second (a field is the technical term for an interlaced frame).

 The duplicated frames are displayed separately, faster than the human eye can
detect them.

The key differences are:

 1080p (progressive scan) mode may appear to be sharper, and fast-moving
action can be easier to watch.
◦ This mode is used for Blu-ray discs and some games consoles, and is known as Full HD.

 1080i (interlaced) mode may appear to flicker or blur more during action
scenes or sports.
◦ Some terrestrial TV in the UK and USA is broadcast in 1080i; the rest is broadcast in 720p.

 In practice, many people do not notice the difference between 1080p and 1080i.
◦ If you have a large HD TV, you may prefer 1080p, but the difference is often negligible.
 What you see depends on three factors:
◦ The size of your TV,
◦ the resolution of the screen, and
◦ the distance you sit from it.

 Your eyesight also plays a role, but we’re not optometrists here.

 Because the Digital Trends’ crystal ball is locked up in storage

right now, there’s no way for us to know your TV’s size,
resolution, or distance from your couch, so we’ve included this
graph to make things easier.

 It’s not 100 percent accurate, but it’s a good reference.

 Generally speaking, if you sit more than 10 feet away from your
TV, and your display isn’t bigger than 50 inches diagonally, you
won’t be able to tell the difference between 720 and 1080.
 The above graph should be a good starting point, but if
you’re not fond of data visualizations, here are a few
general-purpose tips.
◦ If you’re considering getting a bigger TV (over 50 inches), go for
a higher resolution or consider sitting further away from the

◦ If you’re looking at a smaller display, 720p should be adequate

unless you’re sitting really close.

◦ Are you nearsighted? Go for 720p.

◦ Farsighted? Since you can probably make out pixels from a
distance, you might want a higher resolution.
 The definition of 4K television depends on who you ask,
but boils down to a digital video resolution with a
horizontal dimension approximately 4,000 pixels

 The most common definition for 4K high-definition

television — sometimes dubbed Quad Full HD or 4K
UHDTV, for ultra high-definition television — is 3,840
pixels by 2,160 pixels — exactly double the dimensions
of a standard 1080p high-definition display.
Horizontal x Vertical
Resolution name Other names Devices

8K 7,680x4,320 none Concept TVs

"Cinema" 4K 4,096x[unspecified] 4K Projectors

4K, Ultra HD,

UHD 3,840x2,160 Ultra-High TVs

2K 2,048x[unspecified] none Projectors

Widescreen Ultra
WUXGA 1,920x1,200 Extended Monitors, projectors
Graphics Array

Full HD, FHD, HD,

1080p 1,920x1,080 TVs, monitors
High Definition

HD, High
720p 1,280x720 TVs
 That seems like an incredible amount of resolution —
and it is.

 A 4K UHDTV display has 8,294,400 pixels.

 An eight megapixel display might not seem incredibly

high-tech when inexpensive point-and-shoot cameras
these days routinely boast resolutions of 10, 12, and 14
megapixels, but it’s important to put that 4K resolution
in context.
 One possible point of confusion is that the 4,000-ish pixels
in a 4K display are measured horizontally, where the 1,080
(or 720) pixels on an HDTV display are measured vertically.

 A 4K display is double the width of a 1080p high definition

display (which are 1,920 pixels across) and offers four times
as many total pixels, but it’s not four times taller.

 The 3,840 by 2,160 resolution is the only resolution possible

for 4K displays:
◦ Folks might also see references to 4K displays running at 4,096 by
2,160 pixels (that 4,096 number is one of those powers-of-eight
numbers computers love).

 For the most part, however, those will be limited to

professional digital cinematography.
 The