Machining

‡ 3 classifications:
± Cutting Most important ± Abrasive (grinding) ± Nontraditional

‡ In general . . . .
± removing material ± dimensions and shapes not otherwise attainable ± justifiable for small quantities
Machining 1

Cutting
(turning, milling, drilling, . . . ) ‡ Turning
± ± ± ± used for cylindrical and conical shapes workpiece is turning usually done on a lathe related processes
‡ boring -- usually turning on an internal surface ‡ facing -- face perpendicular to rotating axis

± primary cutting motion is rotational ± tool feeds parallel to axis of rotation

Machining

2

d = D1 - D2 / 2

inches

V cutting speed is found in a handbook N (rpm) is set on the machine N= (12V)/(TD1) fr = CT = (L + A)/(fr N) MRR = volume/time = (T D12 - T D22)L 4L/ fr N Sub in for N ignoring A

MRR = 12Vfr (D12 - D22 ) = 12Vfr (D1 -D2)(D1+ D2) (4D1) 2 2D1 = 12Vfrd (approximation)
Machining 3

‡ Milling
± used for prismatic shapes ± tool is turning ± usually done on a milling machine, machining center tool rotates part moves Ns (rpm) fm (ipm) Ns, fm

selected: V, ft , t set on machine: Ns= (12V)/(TD)

Machining

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‡ Milling Continued
w = width of cut fm = ft Ns n CT = L / fm MRR = volume/time = L w t = w t fm CT

Machining

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Orthogonal Cutting
± edge of tool is perpendicular to cutting direction ± chip slides directly up the tool ± most machining is oblique cutting ± same basic mechanics as oblique ± assumption makes the system simpler to study
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ forces on workpiece and tool tool wear friction forces work material response type of chip
Machining 6

Chip Formation
± workpiece only fractures at tip of tool
‡ allows chip to separate from parent material

± most of the work is done in the shear plane

Machining

7

F

A= Area of plane

Xs = F/A
F

F

x

I = x/y
F
Machining 8

‡ Need to find the shear angle ‡ Chip thickness ratio:

Machining

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‡ Example:
± rake angle of ± depth of cut ± chip thickness ± shear angle ± shear strain 10 .020´ .045´ ? ?

Machining

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‡ What is the shear strain?

Machining

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‡ Very large strain values
± shear occurs over very narrow area
‡ small CD

± strains of 3-5+ are possible ± material undergoes great deformation

‡ Shear strains increase with
± decreasing shear angle ± decreasing rake angle
(See Groover, p557)

Machining

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Forces

Machining

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Machining

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Machining

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given Fc, Ft, J, E, and F, find F, N, Fs, Fn.

F=Fc sin E + Ft cos E N=Fc cos E - Ft sin E Fs=Fc cos J - Ft sin J Fn=Fc sin J - Ft cos J

Also, J=45+(E-F)/2

Machining

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F

A= Area of plane

Xs = F/A
F

TOOL

As = t w / sin J

Machining

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Orthogonal Cutting Example:
± Fc = 350 lbs ± Ft = 285 lbs ± w = .125 ± shear stress?

Machining

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‡ Friction Example:
± rake angle: 10 ± shear angle: 25.4 ± friction angle: ± coefficient of friction:

Machining

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Forces:
‡ need to consider: machine, tool, part deflection ‡ cutting force dependent on strength of material ‡ Fc also function of nose radius
± as tool wears forces go up

‡ Force magnitude on tool is approx. 1000 pounds
± over very small area (approx 1 mm) ± high stress at tool tip

‡ High thrust force will push tool away
± change dimensions of part
Machining 20

Conclusions:
‡ high strain values
± lots of material deformation ± lots of energy input

‡ very high strain rates
± material properties important

‡ cutting forces decrease as rake angle increase ‡ coefficient of friction very high
± increases temperature

‡ stresses on tool VERY high
Machining 21

Forces on Tool and Power Input in Turning Operation
cutting

‡ Fc - cutting force
± largest force, largest velocity ± 99% of the power input
radial

‡ Ff - feed force
± force in direction of tool feed ± slow rate, so little power

feed

‡ Fr - radial force
± negligible velocity, little power
Machining 22

Temperature Input
‡ energy dissipated is converted to heat
± adversely affects strength, hardness ± causes dimensional changes of part ± thermal damage to machined surface

‡ Primary sources of heat
± shear zone ± friction force ± dull tool wearing on machined surface

‡ Temp at tool face is a function of u
± speed has major influence ± little time for heat to dissipate ± tool is heat sink
Machining

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‡ Continuous

Types of Chips

± occurs at higher speed, higher rake angles, ductile material ± chips tangle, safety problem and time consuming ± minimize with chip breakers

‡ Discontinuous
± occur when: brittle workpiece material, hard inclusions in material, large depth of cut

‡ Build Up Edge |(BUE)
± material builds up on tool, breaks off, repeats ± changes tool geometry ± may embed on workpiece ± cutting fluid helps to eliminate
Machining

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‡ What do we need from a tool?
± high hardness
‡ room temp ‡ high temp

± stiffness ± consistent life ± geometry ± inertness ± cheap

Machining

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Tool Wear
± flank wear ± crater wear ± nose wear ± chipping ± fracture

‡ Flank Wear
± attributed to sliding of tool along machined surface ± abrasive, adhesive wear ± high temps changes tool properties

‡ Crater Wear
± temperature ± chemical affinity

‡ Chipping
± mechanical Shock ± thermal cycling (cracks >> chipping)
Machining 26

Taylor Tool Life Equation V Tn = C
V--cutting speed, fpm T-- tool life (the length of cutting time that the tool can be used), minute, n-- the slope of the plot, depends on tool materials C-- a constant but depends on all input machining parameters. It represents the cutting speed that results in a 1-min tool life
Machining 27

Types of Tool Materials for Machining ‡ Tool Steels
± medium alloy steels ± poor properties above 500F ± inexpensive

‡ High Speed Steels
± general purpose, drills ± 18% W

Machining

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‡ Carbides
± WC with cobalt binder ± made using powder metallurgy ± usually as an insert

‡ Ceramics
± high abrasion ± high hot hardness ± not good for interrupted cutting ± requires dry, or constant copious cutting fluids

Machining

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‡ CBN
± usually a layer of CBN on a WC insert

‡ SiN Sialon
± good toughness, hot hardness ± thermal shock resistant

Machining

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‡ Coated Tools
± TiN common coating
‡ gold color

± less friction ± usually on HSS and WC ± increases life 200 - 300%

Machining

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‡ Cutting Fluids
± lubricant and coolant ± less friction, less wear
‡ longer life ‡ improve surface finish

± decreases cutting area
‡ less distortion

± wash chips ± decrease forces ± Must consider:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ workpiece: corrosive, staining machine: compatible operator: health and safety Machining environment: degradation, disposal

32

Surface Texture
‡ Importance
± friction, lubrication ± fatigue resistance ± aesthetics ± painted or coated surfaces ± sealing surfaces ± thermal and electrical contact resistance
Machining 33

Terminology
‡ surface roughness:
± fine irregularities result of production process

‡ waviness:
± irregularity of greater spacing than roughness ± causes: deflections, vibration, runout, heat treatment

‡ lay:
± predominant direction of roughness

‡ flaw:
± ± ± ± unintentional, infrequent ex: cracks, inclusions, scratches not included in roughness measurement Machining special note if needed

34

Surface Finish
‡ Colloquial term ‡ generally not specifically tied to texture, pattern, or numeric values ‡ ³good´ surface finish >> low roughness value

Machining

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Surface Roughness measurements
‡ Ra arithmetic average (AA in book)
± arithmetic deviation from a mean line ± typically expressed in micro inches
n

§y
Ra !
i !1

i

n
Machining 36

‡ Rq

root mean square (rms)

± technically obsolete
n

§y
Rq !
‡ Rmax
i !1

2

i

n

± maximum peak to valley height
Machining 37

Machining

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‡Machining Processes
‡ Turning
± applications: external cylindrical surfaces (straight and contour), threads ± cutting movement: workpiece rotates ± feed movement: tool feeds into workpiece ± typical machine: lathe (manual and CNC) ± tools: usually single point tool ± workholding: chuck, collet, centers ± notes: major process
Machining 39

‡ Boring
± applications: ± cutting movement: ± feed movement: ± typical machine: ± tools: ± workholding: ± notes: internal cylindrical surfaces same as turning same as turning lathe, CNC lathe, CNC mill usually single point tool mounted on boring bar same as turning

‡ need a hole to start with ‡ rigidity of tool critical ‡ equations same as turning, except diameter gets bigger

Machining

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‡ Milling
± applications: prismatic surfaces, non-circular surfaces, contours ± cutting movement: tool rotates ± feed movement: workpiece back and forth, left and right tool moves up and down ± typical machine: horizontal mill, vertical mill (manual and CNC) (refers to rotating tool axis) ± tools: Figure 25.6 and 25.7 plain milling cutter end mill: ball end, square end form cutter may use replaceable inserts (similar to turning)
Machining 41

‡ Milling continued
± workholding: fixtures locating off of 3 surfaces, standard vise up to dedicated fixtures

± notes:
‡ CNC machine often will have automatic tool changer stocked with several different tools ‡ many different shape options ‡ major process

Machining

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‡ Drilling
± applications: holes typically up to 1´, up to 3´ ± cutting movement: tool rotates ± feed movement: tool goes down into workpiece ± typical machine: drill press, vertical machining center ± tools: twist drills, insert drills ± workholding: same as milling ± notes: followed by reaming if more accuracy required

Machining

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‡ Broaching
± applications:splines, µsquare¶ holes ± cutting movement: linear tool motion through hole ± feed movement: ± typical machine: broaching machine ± tools: custom broach ± workholding: fixture ± notes: very economical for high production

Machining

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‡ Grinding
± applications: surfaces requiring low surface roughness (16 ui) ± cutting movement: tool rotates ± feed movement: planar: same as milling cylindrical: same as turning ± typical machine: surface or cylindrical grinder ± tools: grinding wheel (abrasive particles in a bonding matrix)
‡ each particle acts as a cutting tool, when it dulls the forces go up resulting in fracture or pull out

± workholding:

same as milling less substantial due to lower forces
Machining 45

Manufacturing Process Control
‡ Manual process
± continuous human judgment and interaction for its operations

‡ Hard automated process
± highly specialized machine capable of producing maximum volumetric rates, within tightest tolerances and producing minimal defects ± ex. transfer line

‡ Computer Controlled Processes
± computer and its associated software to enhance adaptability, volumetric rate and tolerance range ± ex. Machine tools, robots, material handling 46 Machining

Manufacturing Process Control
manual hard computer control production capability skill requirements lead times tolerances capital costs lexibility
Machining 47

‡ computer control of position
± 1947 John Parsons, not MIT, computer coupled to jig borer and controlled by punchcards

‡ NC
± first generation 1950¶s
‡ hardwired controllers ‡ control position, but not path

± second generation of NC 1960s
‡ machine built for NC-- more durable and accurate

± third generation of NC 1970s
‡ CNC ‡ computer took on many control functions ‡ computer programs could be stored and edited in memory ‡ machine interface
Machining 48

What does a NC machine consist of?
Machine

C

C

: data processing unit : control loops unit

Machining

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‡ What does a NC machine consist of?
± CLU control loops unit
‡ interpolator that supplies motion commands ‡ velocity control, where feed control is required ‡ auxiliary function control, such as coolant, spindle

± DPU data processing unit
‡ data input: tape reader, magnetic tape reader, RS232 port ‡ decoding circuits for describing data ‡ transmits commands to CLU, then waits for finished command ‡ IF CNC:
± graphical display ± on-line part programming ± machine monitoring

Machining

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Flow of CNC Processing
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Develop the part drawing Decide which machine will produce the part choose the tooling Decide on the machining sequence Do math calculations for coordinates Calculate the spindle speeds and feedrates Write the CNC program Prepare setup sheets and tool lists Verify and edit the program Run the program

Machining

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‡ Axes specification
± NC machines have 2 to 6 axes ± all are orthogonal ± linear and revolute movement ± Z is collinear with main machine spindle ± X is typically horizontal, and parallel to workholding surface ± Y is established using right hand rule ± Revolute motion

Machining

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‡ Programming
± can be done manually or computer assisted
‡ PC based: MasterCam, TekSoft ‡ workstation: ProEngineer, Uniqraphics ‡ machine based:

‡ Sequence number N
± solely used for block identification

‡ Preparatory functions G
00 01 02 03 70 71 94 95 common ones: Rapid positioning, point to point linear positioning, controlled feed rate circular interpolation, CW 2D circular interpolation, CCW 2D inch metric feedrate - length/minute feedrate - length/revolution
Machining 53

‡ Dimensional words
± used to identify coordinates or degrees

‡ Feedrate F
± magnitude of the velocity along tool path

‡ Speed
± spindle speed or cutting speed

‡ Tool No.
± specifies tool no. ± specifies storage location for automatic tool changer, tool diameter, and length compensation specs

‡ Miscellaneous Function
example: 00 program stop 03 spindle on CW
Machining 54

N10

G90

G70

S300

M03

N20 N30 N40 N50 N60 N70 N80 N90 N100

G00 G01 Y7 X6 Y5 G02 G01 G00 M05

X3 Z-.5 Y10 X5 X3 Z1

Y4

Y4

R1

absolute positioning; inch units; spindle speed 300 fpm, turn spindle on rapid move to: X = 3, Y = 4 cutting move to:Z = -.5 (lower tool to cut) cutting move to: Y = 7 cutting move to: X = 6, Y= 10 cutting move to: Y = 5 circular interpolation move to: X = 5, Y = 4, with radius of 1 cutting move to: X = 3 rapid move to lift tool from work piece turn off spindle

Machining

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