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Diploma Part 1

Unit 1A5
Measuring Health & Safety Performance

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Loss Management Model

Reactive Risk Active

monitoring assessment monitoring

Investigations, Inspections etc

epidemiological and corrective
analyses and action
corrective action

Workplace precautions
Risk Control Systems (RCSs)
Trend Trend
analyses analyses


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Proactive Strategies

• Gives feedback on performance prior to

• Based on a systematic management system
• Aims to measure success rather than punish

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Proactive Monitoring
‘The key to good proactive monitoring
is the quality of the plans, performance
standards and specifications which
have been established’

HSE Successful Health & Safety Management

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Proactive Monitoring
• Examination of documents
• Examination of records
• Inspections of plant & premises
• Environmental monitoring
• Health surveillance
• Observation of working practices

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Proactive Monitoring
• Audits, inspections, sampling and tours
• Examination of performance against
statistical information from a variety of
• Monitoring of development of, and
compliance with, risk assessments
• Corrective action to prevent accidents

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Reactive Strategies
• Accident statistics
• Ill health records
• Systems failures
• Investigations
• Corrective action to prevent re-occurrence

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Health & Safety Culture

• Positive culture required

• No blame
• All incidents reportable
• Accurate analysis & feedback

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In groups of three discuss and list the proactive

and reactive strategies in your organisations

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Aims of Proactive Monitoring
• Inspections & reports of adequate quality
• Identification of common problems and
• Recognition of resource implications
• Validation of risk assessments
• Rectification of previous deficiencies
• Meeting identified training needs
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Proactive Methods

• Audits
• Inspections
• Tours
• Sampling

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• Systematic measurement & validation of an
organisation’s management of it’s health
and safety programme
• Looks at every aspect of process
• Usually undertaken by someone from
outside the department or organisation
• Can be an expensive process

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• Planned
• Check on hazard control and working
• Primarily a visual exercise but talk to staff!
• Statutory inspections e.g. cranes

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Safety Tours
• Unscheduled examination of work area
• Carried out by manager + safety reps. etc.
• Check standards and identify hazards
• Aims to identify need for full inspection
• Safety survey for processes

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Safety sampling
• Workplace divided into routes
• Walked by different people
• Number of hazards identified
• Information from all routes collated
• Identifies areas needing further study

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Sampling exercise

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Reactive monitoring
• Deals with investigation following an
• Accidents
• Injuries
• Ill health
• Property damage
• Weaknesses in performance standards
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• To learn from mistakes

• Improve performance
• Improve risk assessments
• Improve management system

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Statistical analysis
• Frequency rate
• Incident rate
• Severity rate
• Mean duration rate
• Duration rate

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Frequency rate
• Frequency of accidents per 100,000 hours

Total number of accidents x 100,000

Total number of person hours worked

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Incident rate
• Accident rate per 1000 employees

Total number of accidents x 1000

Average number of persons employed

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Severity rate
• Average number of days lost per 1000 hours

Total number of days lost x 1000

Total number of person hours worked

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Mean duration rate
• Average number of days lost per accident

Total number of days lost

Total number of accidents

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Duration rate
• Average number of person hours worked
between accidents

Number of person hours worked

Total number of accidents

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Weaknesses in statistical analysis
• Problems with definition of accidents
• Use of different multipliers
• Nature of work making comparisons
inappropriate e.g office/workshop
• Seasonal variations
• Under reporting of accidents

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Trainee accident exercise

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