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Topic 3

BITUMINOUS MATERIALS
3.1 SOURCES OF ASPHALT
Asphalt is obtained from seeps or pools of natural deposits in different
parts of the world or as a product of the distillation of crude
petroleum.
- Natural Deposits
- Petroleum Asphalt
3.1.1 Natural Deposits
• Native asphalt :
-existed in Iraq, Trinidad, Bermuda and Los Angeles
• Rock asphalt:
- is a natural deposit of sandstone or limestone rocks filled with
asphalt.
-found in California, Texas, Oklahoma and Alabama.
-the amount of asphalt can be as low as 4.5% and as high as 18%.
3.1.2 Petroleum Asphalt
• Obtained from the distillation of petroleum (refining process).
• Two main groups of refining process: fractional distillation & destructive
distillation (cracking).
• Fractional Distillation:
The fractional distillation process removes the different volatile materials in the
crude oil at successively higher temperatures until the petroleum asphalt id
obtained as residue. Steam or a vacuum is used to gradually increase the
temperature.
Immediately after increasing the temperature of the crude in the tube still, it is
injected into a bubble tower which consists of a vertical cylinder into which are
built several trays or platforms stacked one above the other. The first separation
of materials occurs in this tower. The lighter fractions of the evaporated materials
collect on the top tray, and the heavier fractions collect in successive trays, with
the heaviest residue containing asphalt remaining at the bottom of the distillation
tower.
3.1.2 Petroleum Asphalt
• Destructive Distillation (Cracking process)
Used when larger amounts of the light fractions of materials (such as
motor fuels) are required. Intense heat and high pressures are applied
to produce chemical changes in the material. The process generally
involves the application of temperatures as high as 600°C and
pressure higher than 5000 kPa to obtain the desired effect.
The asphalt obtained is not used widely in paving because it is more
susceptible to weather changes than that produced from fractional
distillation.
Figure 1: A Schematic example of a petroleum Distilling Plant
3.2 Description and Uses of Bituminous
Binders
3.2.1 Asphalt Cements
 Obtained after separation of the lubricating oils
 They are semisolid hydrocarbons with certain physiochemical
characteristics that make them good cementing agents.
 They are very viscous, it is necessary to heat both the aggregates and
the asphalt cement prior to mixing the two materials.
 The softest grade used for highway pavement construction has a
penetration value of 200 to 300, and the hardest is 60 to 70
penetration value.
 Used mainly in the hot-mix, hot-laid asphalt concrete.
3.2 Description and Uses of Bituminous
Binders
3.2.2 Asphalt Cutbacks
 The asphalt cutbacks are slow-curing asphalts, medium-curing
cutback asphalts, and rapid-curing cutback asphalts.
 Used mainly in cols-laid plant mixes, road mixes (mixed-in-place), and
as surface treatments
3.2 Description and Uses of Bituminous
Binders
3.2.3 Emulsified Asphalts
 Produced by breaking asphalt cement, usually of 100 to 250 penetration
range, into minute particles and dispersing them in water with an
emulsifier.
 These minute particles have like-electrical charges and therefore do not
coalesce. They remain in suspension in the liquid phase as long as the
water does not evaporate or the emulsifier does not brake. Asphalt
emulsions therefore consist of asphalt, which makes up about 55 to 70% by
weight, water and an emulsifying agent, which in some cases also may
contain a stabilizer.
 Used in cold-laid plant mixes and road mixes (mixed-in-place) for
construction of highway pavement surfaces and bases and in surface
treatments.
3.2 Description and Uses of Bituminous
Binders
3.2.4 Blown Asphalts
 Obtained by blowing air through the semisolid residue obtained
during the latter stages of the distillation process.
 Not used as a paving material.
 Very useful as a roofing material, for automobile undercoating, and as
a joint filler for concrete pavements.
3.2 Description and Uses of Bituminous
Binders
3.2.5 Road Tars
 Obtained from the destructive distillation of such organic materials
such as coal.
 They are more susceptible to weather conditions than similar grades
of asphalts, and they set more quickly when exposed to the
atmosphere.
3.3 Properties of Asphalt Materials
The properties of asphalt materials can be classified into 4 main
categories:
 Consistency
 Aging and temperature sustainability
 Rate of curing
 Resistance to water action
3.3 Properties of Asphalt Materials
3.3.1 Consistency
1. Variation of consistency with temperature
The consistency of any asphalt material changes as the temperature
varies. The change in consistency of different asphalt materials may
differ considerably even for the same amount of temperature change.
2. Variation of consistency at a specified temperature
The consistency of an asphalt material will vary from solid to liquid
depending on the temperature of the material.
3.3 Properties of Asphalt Materials
3.3.2 Aging and Temperature Sustainability (weathering)
 When asphaltic materials are exposed to environmental elements,
natural deterioration gradually takes place, and the materials
eventually lose their plasticity and become brittle. This change is
caused primarily by chemical and physical reactions that take place in
the material.
 Factors influencing weathering:
-Oxidation: asphalt material is attacked by oxygen in the air. It causes
gradual hardening and loss of the plastic characteristics of the material.
-Volatilization: evaporation of the lighter hydrocarbons from the
asphalt material.
-Temperature: effect on the rate of oxidation & volatilization.
-Surface Area: effect on the rate of oxidation & volatilization.
3.3 Properties of Asphalt Materials
3.3.3 Rate of Curing
 Curing is defined as the process through which an asphalt material
increases its consistency as it loses solvent by evaporation.
 Factors affect the rate of curing:
- Volatility of the solvent, quantity of solvent, consistency of the
base material
- Temperature, area of surface area to volume, wind velocity
across exposed surface
3.3 Properties of Asphalt Materials
3.3.4 Resistance to Water Action
 The asphalt must sustain its ability to adhere to the aggregates even
in the presence of water.
 If the bond between the asphalt and the aggregates is lost, the
asphalt will strip from the aggregates, resulting in the deterioration of
the pavement.
3.4 Tests for Asphalt Materials
3.4.1 Consistency test: Saybolt furol viscosity test ; kinematic viscosity
test
3.4.2 Penetration test
3.4.3 Float test
3.4.4.Ring and ball softening point test
3.4.5 Durability test: Thin-film oven test (TFO)
3.4.6 Rate of curing: Distillation test for cutbacks & emulsions
3.4.7 Rheological test: Dynamic shear test, Bending creep test
3.5 Asphalt Mixtures
• Asphalt mixtures are a uniformly mixed combination of asphalt
cement, coarse aggregate, and other materials.
• Type of asphalt mixtures:
-Hot-mix, hot-laid
-Hot-mix, cold-laid
-Cold-mix, cold-laid
3.5.1 Hot-Mix, Hot-laid Asphalt Mixture
• Produced by blending asphalt cement (bitumen),coarse aggregate,
fine aggregate, and filler (dust) at temperature ranging from 80°C–
160°C.
• Used for high-type pavement construction, and the mixture can be
described as open-graded, coarse-graded, dense-graded, or fine-
graded.
• Maximum aggregate size used as high type surfacing and base:
Maximum aggregate size (cm)
High type surfacing Base
open-graded 1-2 2-3.75
coarse-graded 1.25-2 2-3.75
dense-graded 1.25-2.5 2.5-3.75
fine-graded 1.25-2 2
3.5.1 Hot-Mix, Hot-laid Asphalt Mixture
Determined a suitable mix of aggregates & optimum percentage of
asphalt (referred to as job-mix formula)
Aggregate Gradation
Aggregates are categorized as crushed rock (retained in a No. 8 sieve) ,
sand (passes the No. 8 sieve) and filler (passes the a No. 200 sieve).
Asphalt Content
Marshall method and the Hveem method
Example 1
Table 18.4 gives the specifications for the aggregates and mix
composition for highway pavement asphaltic concrete and Table 18.5
shows the results of a sieve analysis of samples from the materials
available. We must determine the proportions of the separate
aggregates that will give a gradation within the specified limits.
Example 1 (Solution)
3.5.1 Hot-Mix, Hot-laid Asphalt Mixture
Marshall Method Procedure
• Described in details in the ASTM Designation D1559
• Use specimens sized of 10 cm diameter and 6.25 cm height.
• Specimens are prepared by a specified procedure of heating, mixing
and compacting the mixture of asphalt and aggregates which is then
subjected to a stability-flow test and a density-voids analysis.
• Stability : max. load resistance N in pounds that the specimen will
achieve at 60°C under specified conditions.
• Flow: total movement of the specimen in units of 0.25mm during the
stability test as the load is increased from zero to the maximum.
Marshall Mix Design Steps
1. Create aggregate blend to meet gradation specifications.
2. Establish mixing and compaction temperatures from the viscosity-
temperature chart.
3. Compact three specimens at each of five asphalt contents spanning the
expected optimum asphalt content.
4. Determine the relative density of each specimen and the mix
volumetric (Bulk specific gravity, Theoretical maximum specific gravity ,
voids in the total mix, Voids in the mineral aggregate, Voids filled with
asphalt).
5. Measure the performance properties (Stability & Flow) of the each
specimen at 60ºC (140ºF).
Marshall compactor
Marshall Apparatus
Analysis of Results: Bulk Density
• Bulk density: determined by weighing the sample in air and water

Wa
Bulk density, G 
Wa  Ww
bcm

Wa = weight of sample in air (g)


Wb= weight of sample in water (g)
Analysis of Results from Marshall Test
• Bulk Specific Gravity of Aggregate: weight in air of a unit volume
(including all normal voids) of a permeable material at a selected
temperature, divided by the weight in air of the same volume of gas-
free distilled water at the same selected temperature.
Pca  Pfa  Pmf
Gsb 
Pca Pfa Pmf
 
Gbca Gbfa Gbmf

Pca,Pfa,Pmf=percent by weight of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and


mineral filler, respectively, in the paving mixture.
Gba,Gbfa,Gbmf=bulk specific gravities of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and
mineral filler
Analysis of Results from Marshall Test
• Apparent Specific Gravity of Aggregate: the ratio of the weight in air
of an impermeable material to the weight of an equal volume of
distilled water at a specified temperature.
Pca  Pfa  Pmf
Gasb 
Pca Pfa Pmf
 
Gaca Gafa Gamf

Pca,Pfa,Pmf=percent by weight of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, and mineral


filler, respectively, in the paving mixture.
Gaca,Gafa,Gamf=apparent specific gravities of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and
mineral filler
Analysis of Results from Marshall Test
• Effective Specific Gravity of Aggregate: the specific gravity of the
aggregates when all void spaces in the aggregate particles are
included, with the exception of those that are filled with asphalt.

100  Pb
Gse 
100 / Gmm   Pb / Gb 

Gse = effective specific gravity of the aggregates


Gmm = maximum specific gravity of paving mixture (no air voids)
Pb = asphalt percent by total weight of paving mixture (thus 100 – Pb is the
percent by weight of the base mixture that is not asphalt)
Gb = specific gravity of the asphalt
Analysis of Results from Marshall Test
• Maximum Specific Gravity of the Paving Mixture: the specific gravity
excluding air voids.
100
Gmm 
 Ps  P 
 G  b G 
 se   b

Gmm = maximum specific gravity of paving mixture (no air voids)


Ps = percent by weight of aggregates in paving mixture
Pb = asphalt percent by total weight of paving mixture (thus 100 – Pb is the percent by
weight of the base mixture that is not asphalt)
Gse = effective specific gravity of the aggregates (assumed to be constant for different
asphalt cement contents)
Gb = specific gravity of the asphalt
Analysis of Results from Marshall Test
• Asphalt Absorption: the percent by weight of the asphalt that is
absorbed by the aggregates based on the total weight of the
aggregates.
Gse  Gsb
Pba  100 Gb
GsbGse

Gse = effective specific gravity of the aggregates (assumed to be


constant for different asphalt cement contents)
Gsb = bulk specific gravity of the aggregates
Gb = specific gravity of the asphalt
Analysis of Results from Marshall Test
• Effective Asphalt Content: difference between the total amount of
asphalt in the mixture and that absorbed into the aggregate particles.
The effective asphalt content is therefore that which coats the
outside of the aggregate particles and influences the pavement
performance.
Pba Ps
Pbe  Pb 
100

Pbe = effective asphalt content in paving mixture (percent by weight)


Pb = percent by weight of asphalt in paving mixtrue
Ps = aggregate percent by weight of paving mixture
Pba = amount of asphalt absorbed as a percentage of the total weight of aggregates.
Analysis of Results from Marshall Test
• Percent Voids in Compacted Mineral Aggregates: percentage of void
spaces between the granular particles in the compacted paving
mixture, including the air voids and the volume occupied by the
effective asphalt content.

Gmb Ps
VMA  100 
Gsb
Gmb = bulk specific gravity of compacted mixture
Gsb = bulk specific gravity of aggregate
Ps = aggregate percent by weight of paving mixture
Analysis of Results from Marshall Test
• Percent Air Voids in Compacted Mixture: the ratio (expressed as a
percentage) between the volume of the small air voids between the
coated particles and the total volume of the mixture.

Gmm  Gmb
VIM @ Pa  100 x
Gmm

Pa = percent air voids in compacted paving mixture


Gmm = maximum specific gravity of the compacted paving mixture
Gmb = bulk specific gravity of the compacted paving mixture
Analysis of Results from Marshall Test
• Below graphs are drawn to select the asphalt contents for maximum
stability, maximum unit weight, and percent voids in the total mix
within the limits specified (usually the median of the limits)
1. Percent voids in total mix versus percent of asphalt
2. Percent voids in mineral aggregate versus percent of asphalt
3. Marshall stability versus percent of asphalt
4. Flow versus percent of asphalt.
Analysis of Results from Marshall Test
• AASHTO suggested criteria for test limits:
Example 2
In designing an asphalt concrete mixture for a highway pavement to
support medium traffic, data in Table 18.8 showing the aggregate
characteristics and Table 18.9 showing data obtained using the
Marshall method were used. Determine the optimum asphalt content
for this mix for the specified limits given in Table 18.7.
Example 2 (Solution)
3.5.2 Hot-Mix, Cold-laid Asphalt Mixture
• Asphalt mixtures are manufactured hot and then shipped and laid
immediately or they can be stockpiled for use at a future date.
• Suitable for small jobs, patching high-type pavements.
• Use high penetration grade bitumen (200-300) , medium-curing
cutback asphalt and water
Example 3
Using the information given in Example 2, determine the asphalt
absorbed for the optimum mix. The maximum specific gravity for this
mixture is 2.57 and the specific gravity of the asphalt cement is 1.02.

Answer:
Pba = 1.75%
3.5.3 Cold-Mix, Cold-laid Asphalt Mixture
• Emulsified asphalts and low-viscosity cutback asphalts are used.
• Asphalt mixtures can be used immediately after production or
stockpiled for use at a future date.
• The production process is similar to that of the hot-mix asphalts,
except that the mixing is done at normal temperatures and it is not
always necessary to dry the aggregates.
• Applications: Seal coats, fog seal, slurray seal, aggregate seals, prime
coats, tack coats, surface treatments