A/L ICT By Dasun Nilanjana

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Data
y Data are raw facts about something or someone. y Information is created by processing these data. y Data are primitive facts and comparatively less

valuable and meaningless. y Can be qualitative or Quantitative. y Exist in
y Text(alphanumeric, Punctuation, Special tokens etc) y Audio y Image formats
Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE) 2

Nature of Data
y Can be y Collected y Stored and Retrieved y Processed (Arithmetically and Logically)
y y y y y y

Organized Sorted Indexed Ranked Calculated Compared
Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE) 3

y Communicated

Protection on Data (DPA - UK)
y Personal data shall be processed fairly and lawfully y Shall be obtained only for one or more lawful purposes y Shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive y Accurate and Up to Date y Should not be kept for longer than necessary y Apply appropriate technical and organizational

measures against unauthorized or unlawful processing and to recover from accidental loss y Consider rights of data subject
Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE) 4

Information
y Information can be explained as any kind of understanding or knowledge that can be

exchanged with people. It can be about facts, things, concepts, or anything relevant to the topic concerned. y Or simply Information is
y Meaningful data or y Processed data.

y The word information was derived from Latin. The verb from which it is derived is

informare, which means to instruct. It also means giving form to an idea or fact. Data is the plural of the Latin word datum. It can mean to give. In the realms of mathematics and geometry, the terms data and given are very often used interchangeably. This is how the term was derived for use in computer realm.
Action Motivator Confirms and refreshes previous knowledge Economic resource Can be shared but exchange? Used to make decisions

Information is
y y y y y

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Use of information
y Day to day work y As KB y Planning y Forecasting y Decision making y Evaluation

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Creating Information
Data Processing Cycle Input
Process

Output

y Once data is collected, it is processed to convert it into useful

information. The data is processed again and again until the accurate result is achieved. This is called data processing cycle. y The data processing is very important activity and involves very careful planning. Usually, data processing activity involves three basic activities.
y y y

Input Processing Output

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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1. Input
y It is the process through which collected data is transformed into a form that computer

can understand. It is very important step because correct output result totally depends on the input data. In input step, following activities can be performed.

i) Verification The collected data is verified to determine whether it is correct as required. For example, the collected data of all B.Sc. students that appeared in final examination of the university is verified. If errors occur in collected data, data is corrected or it is collected again. ii) Validation Data type checks iii) Coding The verified data is coded or converted into machine readable form so that it can be processed through computer. iv) Storing The data is stored on the secondary storage into a file. The stored data on the storage media will be given to the program as input for processing.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Data Validation
Data Type Checks Checks the data type of the input and give an error message if the input data does not match with the chosen data type, e.g., In an input box accepting numeric data, if the letter 'O' was typed instead of the number zero, an error message would appear. Check digits Used for numerical data. An extra digit is added to a number which is calculated from the digits. The computer checks this calculation when data are entered, e.g., The ISBN for a book. The last digit is a check digit calculated using a modulus 11 method. Presence check Checks that important data are actually present and have not been missed out, e.g., customers may be required to have their telephone numbers listed. Range check Checks that the data lie within a specified range of values, e.g., the month of a person's date of birth should lie between 1 and 12. File existence check Checks that a file with a specified name exists. This check is essential for programs that use file handling. Limit check Unlike range checks, data is checked for one limit only, upper OR lower, e.g., data should not be greater than 2 (<=2).
Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE) 9

2. Processing
After completing the processing step, output is generated. The main purpose of data processing is to get the required result. Mostly, the output is stored on the storage media for later use. In output step, following activities can be performed in a systematic manner. Some of the important activities are: i) Classification The data is classified into different groups and subgroups, so that each group or subgroup of data can be handled separately. ii) Storing The data is arranged into an order so that it can be accessed very quickly as and when required. iii) Calculations The arithmetic operations are performed on the numeric data to get the required results. For example, total marks of each student are calculated. iv) Summarizing The data is processed to represent it in a summarized form. ft means that the summary of data is prepared for top management. For example, the summary of the data of student is prepared to show the percentage of pass and fail student examination etc.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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3. Output
y After completing the processing step, output is generated. The main purpose of

data processing is to get the required result. Mostly, the output is stored on the storage media for later user. In output step, following activities can be performed.

i) Retrieval Output stored on the storage media can be retrieved at any time. For example, result of students is prepared and stored on the disk. This result can be retrieved when required for different purposes. ii) Conversion The generated output can be converted into different forms. For example, it can be represented into graphical form. iii) Communication The generated output is sent to different places. For example, weather forecast is prepared and. sent to different agencies and newspapers etc. where it is required.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Quality of Information
y It will improve according to y Relevance y Completeness y Accuracy y Clarity y Timeliness y Communication Capability

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Value of Information
Value of information (VOI or VoI) is the amount a decision maker would be willing to pay for information prior to making a decision.

y Figure 1 shows that as time passes, the value of information diminishes to zero. Each

unit of time causes the value to slip until, after enough time, the value of the information is effectively zero. y The drop-off of the value of information shown in Figure 1 is fairly uniform. With each passing moment, the usefulness of information diminishes at approximately the same rate. This may be the case with a decision such as that made by a loan officer to make a loan or not. There are no particular deadlines for this decision, but after enough time has passed, then there is no opportunity to make a loan at all.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Value of Information Cont.

y In Figure 2, there is a very rapid drop-off over time of the time value of

information. Unlike Figure 1 where there is a somewhat uniform drop-off of the value of information, in Fig 2 when a few units of time have passed, the information drops almost to zero. After those early moments have passed, then there is incrementally very little drop-off of the value of information because the value is almost at zero anyway. y The kind of drop in the time value of information shown in Figure 2 is representative of an opportunity that is a take-it-or-leave-it opportunity with a deadline. Once the deadline has passed (assuming that the deadline is real), the value of information about the decision relating to the deadline is worthless.
Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE) 14

Value of Information Cont.

These are highly theoretical.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Relevance of Information
y Information relevancy is always depend on person to

person or data subject to subject.
Ex: A scientist want to calculate root of value to get answer with 4 decimal places where as ordinary student will not consider about 4 decimal places

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Knowledge
y y y y y y

By knowledge we mean human understanding of a subject matter that has been acquired through proper study and experience. Knowledge is usually based on learning, thinking, and proper understanding of the problem area. Knowledge is not information and information is not data. Knowledge is derived from information in the same way information is derived from data. We can view it as an understanding of information based on its perceived importance or relevance to a problem area. It can be considered as the integration of human perceptive processes that helps them to draw meaningful conclusions. Data: symbols Information: data that are processed to be useful; provides answers to "who", "what", "where", and "when" questions Knowledge: application of data and information; answers "how" questions Understanding: appreciation of "why Wisdom: evaluated understanding.

y y y y y

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Data, Information, Knowledge

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Data, Information and Knowledge
y Data is unprocessed facts and figures without any added interpretation or analysis. "The price of crude oil is $80 per barrel. y Information is data that has been interpreted so that it has meaning for the user. "The price of crude oil has risen from $70 to $80 per barrel" gives meaning to the data and so is said to be information to someone who tracks oil prices. y Knowledge is a combination of information, experience and insight that may benefit the individual or the organization. "When crude oil prices go up by $10 per barrel, it's likely that petrol prices will rise by 2p per liter" is knowledge.
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Data Vs. Information
y Data are plain facts. When data are processed,

organized, structured or presented in a given context so as to make them useful, they are called Information.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Data Processing
y Data is processed to get the required results. Different operations may be

performed on data. Therefore, data processing is defined as:

"A sequence of operations on data to convert it into useful information is called data processing". The important operations that can be performed on data are: y Arithmetic and logical operations on data to get required results. y To send and receive data from one location to another. y Classification of data. y Arranging data into a specific order etc.
y The data processing is divided into three categories or levels. y Manual Data Processing. y Mechanical Data Processing. y Electronic Data Processing.
Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE) 21

Manual Data Processing
y In manual data processing, data is processed manually

without using any machine or tool to get required result. In manual data processing, all the calculations and logical operations are manually performed on the data. Similarly, data is manually transferred from one place to another. This method of data processing is very slow and errors may occur in the output.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Mechanical Data Processing
y In mechanical data processing, data is processed by

using different tools like calculators or other mechanical devices. This method of data processing is faster and more accurate than manual data processing.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Electronic Data Processing
y Electronic Data Processing (EDP) can refer to the

use of automated methods to process commercial data. Typically, this uses relatively simple, repetitive activities to process large volumes of similar information. For example:
y stock updates applied to an inventory,

y banking transactions applied to account and customer

master files, y booking and ticketing transactions to an airline's reservation system, y billing for utility services.
Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE) 24

Electronic Data Processing - History
y The first commercial business computer was developed in the United

y y y y y

Kingdom in 1951, by the J. Lyons and Co. catering organization. This was known as the 'Lyons Electronic Office' - or LEO for short. It was developed further and used widely during the 1960s and early 1970s. Early commercial systems were installed exclusively by large organizations. At first, individual organizations developed their own software, including data management utilities, themselves. High hardware costs and relatively slow processing speeds forced developers to use resources 'efficiently'. Data input required intermediate processing via punched paper tape or card Data storage was strictly serial on paper tape, and then later to magnetic tape: the use of data storage within readily accessible memory was not cost-effective.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Electronic Data Processing - Today
y As with other industrial processes commercial IT has moved in all respects

from a bespoke(bespoke application written specifically for an organisation), craft-based industry where the product was tailored to fit the customer; to multi-use components taken off the shelf to find the best-fit in any situation. Mass-production has greatly reduced costs and IT is available to the smallest company. y Software is available off the shelf(The software can be very sophisticated as the revenues from a very large numbers of users means that a lot of resources can be applied to it's development e.g. Excel or Word ): y apart from Microsoft products such as Office, or Lotus, there are also specialist packages for payroll and personnel management, account maintenance and customer management, to name a few. These are highly specialized and intricate components of larger environments, but they rely upon common conventions and interfaces. y Data storage has also standardized. Relational databases are developed by different suppliers to common formats and conventions. Common file formats can be shared by large main-frames and desk-top personal computers, allowing online, real time input and validation.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Manual Vs. EDP
y Manual Data Processing is Done by hands and their is

no use of computers in this, on the other hand in EDP, Computers are used and this is more reliable and fast as compared to Manual Data Processing... EDP is less time consuming, less costly, more relaible, more accurate, faster as compared to manual data processing......

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Communication
y It would be impossible to conduct modern business without the use of communication

y

y y

y

technology. Telecommunications are nothing new; from the first use of signal fires, people have communicated over a long distance for many centuries. The use of electrical communication became widespread in the 19th Century, causing a major revolution in business practices. Communication systems today are inextricably linked to computers. Your mobile telephone has a computer in it. We will look at how computers are connected together to form and integral part of telecommunication: The Internet originally connected military and research computers in the US. Now it is not a single network, but many thousands of networks that have grown like Topsy. The World Wide Web originated from the computers set up at a vast Particle Physics laboratory called CERN, located near Geneva. The experiments were too vast, complex and expensive to be borne by a single university, so the resources were shared. The language of the net, hypertext mark-up language (HTML) was developed by a British computer expert, Timothy Berners-Lee, for this purpose. The World Wide Web is a collection of pages stored on computers, joined by hyperlinks. You can click on these and they will take you to other web pages. Each page has a unique address called a URL (uniform resource locator). Nowadays the two terms are interchangeable. We surf the net, or browse the web.
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ICT in education
y ICT in education can be broadly categorized in the

following ways ass y ICT as a subject (i.e., computer studies) y ICT as a tool to support traditional subjects (i.e., computer-based learning, presentation, research) y ICT as an administrative tool (i.e., education management information systems/EMIS)

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Computer-based learning
y Computer-based learning, sometimes abbreviated to CBL, refers to the use of

computers as a key component of the educational environment. While this can refer to the use of computers in a classroom, the term more broadly refers to a structured environment in which computers are used for teaching purposes. The concept is generally seen as being distinct from the use of computers in ways where learning is at least a peripheral element of the experience (e.g. computer games and web browsing). y CBTs can be a good alternative to printed learning materials since rich media, including videos or animations, can easily be embedded to enhance the learning. y However, CBTs pose some learning challenges as well. Typically the creation of effective CBTs requires enormous resources. The software for developing CBTs (such as Flash or Adobe Director) is often more complex than a subject matter expert or teacher is able to use. In addition, the lack of human interaction can limit both the type of content that can be presented as well as the type of assessment that can be performed. Many learning organizations are beginning to use smaller CBT/WBT activities as part of a broader online learning program which may include online discussion or other interactive elements.
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Computer-Based Training
y Computer-Based Trainings (CBTs) are self-paced

learning activities accessible via a computer or handheld device. y The term Computer-Based Training is often used interchangeably with Web-based training (WBT) with the primary difference being the delivery method. Where CBTs are typically delivered via CD-ROM, WBTs are delivered via the Internet using a web browser.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Computer Based Assessment
y Assessing learning in a CBT usually comes in the form

of multiple choice questions, or other assessments that can be easily scored by a computer such as drag-anddrop, radial button, simulation or other interactive means. Assessments are easily scored and recorded via online software, providing immediate end-user feedback and completion status. Users are often able to print completion records in the form of certificates.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) -sometimes CAL
y Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is

one of the most promising innovations to improve teaching and learning with the help of modern information and communication technology. Most recent developments in CSCL have been called ELearning 2.0, but the concept of collaborative or group learning whereby instructional methods are designed to encourage or require students to work together on learning tasks has existed much longer.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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ICT in Other areas
y Medicine y Transportation y Business y Engineering(CASE, CAD, CAM) y Agriculture y Entertainment
y More info: http://cbdd.wsu.edu/kewlcontent/cdoutput/tr501/page10.htm

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ICT in Business
y Many businesses use ICT because ...
y y y y y

it allows fast access to data. Slow access may annoy customers. it keeps storage requirements to a minimum. There is no need for large filing cabinets filled with lots of paper. it allows data to be accessed by more than one person at a time. there is better security. Data can be coded. * fewer staff need to be employed. data is kept inside the computer system and cannot get misplaced.

y BUT...
computer equipment is expensive to buy and install. y staff may need to be trained to use ICT. y computers may fail to work or there may be a powercut. y data may be prone to hackers and viruses.
y

y Areas
y y y y y

Stock Control and ICT Credit Control and ICT Marketing and ICT Personnel Management and ICT Finance and ICT
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Internet A Network of Networks
Largest WAN (Largest Public Network)
y Internet can be used to
y On-line information services enable subscribers to access information on news, y

y y

y

weather, share prices, etc. Bulletin Boards are used by groups of people sharing a common interest, e.g. Open University students. Less pleasant groups such as terrorists and football hooligans also communicate this way. Accessing information - many of the images and articles are from the internet. Downloading software - you can buy software and download it from sites. Freeware is downloaded software that costs nothing. You can also get updates to upgrade the programs you are running. These are called plug-ins. Patches are corrections that can be downloaded to address certain shortcomings in existing software. Making purchases - you can get almost any product on the Internet.

y Internet provides many services
y WWW y Remote Access y Email y File Handling
Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE) 36

Advantages of Internet
y For an individual:
y y y y y y y

Rapid access to information; Can search for exactly the information needed, even if you are not sure how to describe it. Purchases can be made over the internet. A user has a whole library of resources to hand, many of which you may not have thought of before. Educational sites can explain difficult concepts. Easy to download material including software. You can listen to live music over the internet.
Visits to a site are possible at any time You can hear snatches of the music if you are buying a CD. There are pictures of other items. You can shop without fighting your way through the merry Christmas crowds.

y For a customer
y y y

y For a company
y y y y y y y

Rapid communication between a company and its customers. A website can be updated regularly. Huge savings on overheads, no warehouse space, heating, etc. Lots of lines can be marketed without having to display them. Companies work on a just in time delivery system from their suppliers, so don t get lumbered with goods they cannot sell. Good market research tool. Some companies reckon that 6 % of visitors to a web site make a purchase, compared to 1 % from a mail shot. Of these 40 % return to make further purchases.

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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Disadvantages of Internet
y For

i

ivi

l:
i vir s as t affect i e s c t at s .

s r ra s ca ass via t e I ter et. e 32 affecte c ters r i i sX a 2 . It i y r ra ic, e ilic a t er is sti e sites. y err rist a cri i al c at r s. y sessi it s rfi .
y Malici

y For
y

c stomer
ay ta e ti e.

Purc ases ca ly e ai f r; t ey ave t e elivere y c urier. is y ust ers ca t a le s t see if t ey are ri t f r t eir ee s. y raudule t tradi i ic cust er ay f r ds ever received. y redit card fraud.

y For
y y
y

company
ac ers ca e a r le . Piracy f usic a d s ft are. y er terr ris a d lac ail. I f r ati verl ad I dustrial es i a e y rivals is easier. ere are differe t sta dards i data r tecti i differe t c untries. Pe le set up e sites it a c pany s na e, and sell it t t e f r an ext rti nate price.
Dasun Nilanjana (BI - HDI , MIEEE)

y Security fr

y y y

 

 

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References
y http://en.wikipedia.org/ y http://www.b-eye-network.com/ y http://www.free-computer-tips.info/ y http://www.differencebetween.net/ y http://turing.une.edu.au/ y http://searchdatamanagement.techtarget.com/ y http://www.systems-thinking.org

Dasun Nilanjana (BIT - HDIT, MIEEE)

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