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Reduced clauses are a common feature of

written English. They are not much used in


spoken language.
As their name implies, they are created by
'reducing ' or contracting a standard clause.
They are a stylistic device. In other words, they
are used for style, not for any other reason.
Adjective

Reduced
Noun
clause

Adverb
Adjective clause is a relative clause. adjective clause
use a relative pronoun such as who, whom, which
and that to replace noun. Adjective clauses can
appear in a reduced form.

Adjective clause can be reduced into adjective phrase


that modified noun without any changes in the
sentences meaning. usually, only an adjective
clause that has relative pronoun , like: Who, Which
or that can be reduced into adjective phrase.

The following words can also be used as relative


pronouns: whose, when, where, whom, why, the
adjective clause use this relative pronoun in some
cases can be reduced into adjective phrase.
adjective clause
a. the girl who is sitting next to me is nely
b. the man that is reading an encyclopedia is
Jake

adjective phrase
a. the girl sitting next to me is nelly
b.the man reading an encyclopedia is jake
In the reduced form the connector who, which, or
1 that is omitted along with the be-verb is or was.
example:
AC: The man who is talking to me is from holand
AP: The man talking to me Is from holand

AC: The ideas which are persented in that book are


interesting
AP: The ideas presented in that book are interesting

AC: The comic books that are on the table are mine
AP: The comic books on the table are mine
2
If there is no be-verb in the adjective clause, it is
still possible to have a reduced form. When there
is no be-verb in the adjective clause, the
connector is omitted and the verb is changed into
the -ing form.

AC: english has an alphabet that consists of 26


letters
AP: english has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters

AC: Students who sit in the front row usually


participate more
AP: Students sitting in the front row usually
participate more.
It should be noted that not all adjective
clauses can appear in a reduced form. An
adjective clause can appear in a reduced form
only if the adjective clause connector is
followed directly by a verb. In other words, an
adjective clause can only be reduced if the
connector is also a subject.

The woman that I just met is the tour guide.


[does not reduce]

The letter which you sent me arrived


yesterday [does not reduce]
You may NOT delete
the relative pronoun and the be verb when :

1. they are followed by an adjective:


•AC: The man who is angry is my father
•AP: (X) The man angry is my father

(However, you may switch the positions of the adjective and noun.)
•AC: The angry man is my father. (okay)

2. they are followed by a noun:


•AC: The man who is a doctor is my father.
•AP: (X) The man a doctor is my father.
The relative pronoun can be deleted if there is a new subject and
verb following it:

AC: This is the house that Jack built.


AP: This is the house Jack built.

AC: This is the place where I live.


AP: This is the place I live.
(It can be omitted but a preposition (at, in, to)
usually must be added. )

AC: I don't know the reason why she is late.


AP: I don't know the reason she is late

AC: I will never forget the day when I graduated.


AP: I will never forget the day I graduated.
Do not delete a relative pronoun that is followed
by a verb other than be:
AC: The man who likes lasagna is my father.
AP: (X) The man likes lasagna is my father.

Never delete the relative pronoun whose:


AC: The man whose car broke down went to
the station.
AP: (X) The man car broke down went to the
station.
A final point to note is that some adjective clauses are set off from the
rest of the sentence with commas, and these adjective clause can
also be reduced. In addition, when an adjective clause is set off with
commas, the reduced adjective clause can appear at the front of the
sentence.
The White House, which is located in Washington, is the home of
the president.
The White House, located in Washington, is the home of the
president.
Located in Washington, the White House is the home of the
president

The president, who is now preparing to give a speech, is meeting


with his advisors.
The president, now preparing to give a speech, is meeting with his
advisors.
Now preparing to give a speech, the president is meeting with his
advisors.
Directions: Change the subordinate clauses into reduced
adjective clauses.

1. Puerto Ricans who take up residence in the U.S. can vote in


the national election.
2. Puerto Ricans who live on the island can’t vote in a national
election.
3.Puerto Ricans who live in the U.S. usually learn to speak
English.
4. Puerto Ricans who want Puerto Rico to become an
independent nation are in the minority.
Directions: Change the subordinate
clauses into reduced adjective clauses.

I didn’t talk much to the man sitting


next to me on the plane.

I didn’t talk much to the man who sat


next to me on the plane.
1. The company sent me a brochure containing all
the information I needed.
2. The taxi taking us to the airport broke down.
3. At the end of the street there is a path leading to
the river.
4. A boy injured in the accident was taken to
hospital.
5. A window broken in the storm last night has now
been repaired.
6. The paintings stolen from the museum haven’t
been found yet.
What is Reduced Noun Clause?
 Reduced noun clause is a noun
clause that is reduced by remove
some words while keeping same
idea.
 Reduce some words of noun
clause can make more simple
sentences than before.
Noun Clause as
Question words Subject
followed by
invinitives phrase

invinitive phrase

Reduced Noun Noun Clause as


Clause Object
That-Clause

Gerund phrase
 We should only make a reduced noun clause if the
following criteria are met. There are :
1 The connector is a question word, such as What,
Where, Who, Why, How, When, whose.
The subject in the noun clause is the same as the
2
main subject in the sentence, or there is only one
clear “doer’ in the sentence.
The verb in the noun clause includes the modal
3
auxiliary such as : should, would, could, can, will.
1 Remove the subject of the noun clause

2
Change the entire verb structure to the invinitive
Example :
Full Noun Clause : Please tell me how I should
operate this machine
Step 1 : remove the subject “I” in the noun clause
Step 2 : replace should operate with to operate (to
invinitive)
Reduced Noun Clause : Please tell me how to operate
this machine
 Full Noun Clause : He asked the receptionist when he could call to
catch the prime minister.
 Reduced Noun Clause : He asked the receptionist when to call to
catch the prime minister.

 Full Noun Clause : Airin can’t decide whether she should go or


stay home
 Reduced Noun Clause :Airin can’t decide whether to go or stay
home.

 Full Noun Clause : Please tell us where we will meet you


 Reduced Noun Clause : Please tell us where to meet you.

 Full Noun Clause : We don’t know how we can solve this problem
 Reduced Noun Clause : We don’t know how to solve this problem.
 In this type, that-clause can be reduced to be invinitive
phrases if the verb of the statement consists of the verb
which must follow by to-invinitive, such as :

Agree Dare Intend Seem


Aford Decide Learn Tend
Appear Demand Manage Threaten
Arrange Deserve Mean Want
Attempt Fail Offer
Ask Forget Plan
Claim Hesitate Pretend
Consent Hope Promise
 If there is an adjective in front of noun clause, we
just do the following steps to reduce the clause :
1) Remove the connector “that”.
It is urgent that he change his job
2) Change the subject of noun clause to be
objective personal pronoun (me, you, her, him,
us,them and it) and add “for” before it
3) Add “to” before the verb of noun clause
It is urgent for him to change his job
 Full Noun Clause :It is a pity that you were late
Reduced Noun Clause :It is a pity for you to be late
 Full Noun Clause :It is not safe that she go alone
Reduced Noun Clause :It is not safe for her to go
alone
• Full Noun Clause :It is so dangerous that they
swim on that area
Reduced Noun Clause :It is so dangerous for them to
swim on that area
If there is a verb in front of the noun clause, we just do the
following steps :
1) Move the subject of noun clause as the subject of sentences
2) Remove the connector “that” and “modal”
3) Add “to” before the verb of noun clause

Example :
 Full Noun Clause : It is certain that we will win the match
Reduced Noun Clause : We are certain to win the match

 Full Noun Clause : It happened that he was away that day


Reduced Noun Clause : He happened to be away that day
 If noun clause acts as the object of the sentence, we just
remove the connector “that”and change the verb of noun
clause to be invinitive form.

Example :
1) Full Noun Clause : I hope that I can finish this work in
three days
Reduced Noun Clause : I hope to finish this work in three days

2) Full Noun Clause : I ask that you should go first


Reduced Noun Clause : I ask you to go first

3) Full Noun Clause : He decide that we will get some of


books
Reduced Noun Clause : He decide us to get some of books
When we want to reduce a noun clause to
gerund phrases, we must to change the verb
of noun clause into verb-ing form, without
considering the tenses of it. We can reduce a
noun clause to gerund phrases if the verb of
the entire statement consists of the verb
which must follow by “–ing form”.
Admit Fancy Recommend
Avoid Finish Regret
Acknowledge Imagine Risk
Complete Involve Suggest
Consider Mind Stop
Delay Miss
Deny Postpone
Enjoy Practise
1) Make sure that the main verb of the statement consists
of the verb which is followed by “–ing form”.
2) Remove the connector “that” and the subject of noun
clause if same as the main subject of the statement.
3) Change the verb of noun clause to “-ing form”
Example :
 Full Noun Clause : I admit that i have a problem
about my work.
 Reduced Noun Clause : I admit having a problem about

my work.
*The subject “I” in noun clause is omitted because same
from the subject of the entire of statement.
 Full Noun Clause : I recommend that you buy something
because you need it.
Reduced Noun Clause : I recommend you buying something because you
need it.
 Full Noun Clause : I suggested that he studies hard before the
exam.
Reduced Noun Clause : I suggested him studying hard before the exam.
 Full Noun Clause : That the peace treaty was signed was
important.
Reduced Noun Clause : signing of the peace treaty was important.
 Full Noun Clause : She acknowledged that she had been at fault
Reduced Noun Clause : She acknowledge having been at fault
 Full Noun Clause : She admitted that she had made a mistake
Reduced Noun Clause : She admitted having made a mistake.
Adverb clauses like adjective clauses can give
variety to your sentences.
Sometimes we find adverb clauses that have
left some words out.
They are called reduced adverb clauses.
Example: While (she was) speaking to the timid
student, the teacher spoke slowly.
Adverb clauses that begin with the following
words: Since, After, Before, and While can be
reduced to adverbial phrases.

Rule:
The subjects of both clauses must be the same
Keep the time adverb
Take away the subject, make sure the VERB is
the GERUND (-ing) form.
I didn’t speak English very often before I came
to the United States.
Reduce: I didn’t speak English very often
before coming to the United States.
While Steven was doing his homework, Steven
fell asleep at his desk.
Reduce: While doing his homework, Steven
fell asleep at his desk. (keep the name)
Since their international student joined the
family, the Smiths have been very busy. NO
CHANGE
Clause: Since Bernie was photographed by famous
people, he became very well known in the music
world.

Phrase: Since photographed by famous people,


Bernie became very well known in the music
world.

In this example, the subject of the adverb clause


and the verb “to be” are deleted.
Clause: Before Bernie wasn’t accepted in some
clubs, he could play almost anywhere.

Phrase: Before not being accepted in some


clubs, Bernie could play almost anywhere.

Notice that the word “not” precedes the –ing


form.
Rule:
the same as time adverb clauses
BUT remove the adverb – no
“because”
Because Mary needed some cash, she wanted
to find an ATM machine.
Reduce: Needing some cash, Mary wanted to
find an ATM machine.
Because he was unable to afford a new car,
Anthony bought a used car.
Reduce: Being unable to afford a new car,
Anthony bought a used car
Because the weather was so nice, the teacher
brought her class outside. NO CHANGE
1. While he was watching the geese, he
saw the fox.
2. Richard got a thorn in his finger when
he was pruning the roses.
3. The cat meowed loudly after it searched
for a way into the house.
4. Although the man feared being
ostracized, he continued helping
everyone.
5. Will measured the board again before
he made his final cut.
1. While watching the geese, he saw the fox.
2. Richard got a thorn in his finger when pruning
the roses.
3. The cat meowed loudly after searching for a way
into the house.
4. Although fearing being ostracized, the man
continued helping everyone.
5. Will measured the board again before making his
final cut.
1. After hearing the terrible noise, they ran
for their lives.
2. The customer paid for his groceries when
passing through the check out stand.
3. Allen is only happy while participating in
an argument.
4. Before leaving for the hike, the boy
scouts were warned about snakes.
5. Until watering the lawn in the morning,
he didn't see the dandelions in it.
1. After they had heard the terrible noise, they ran
for their lives.
2. The customer paid for his groceries when he
passed through the check out stand.
3. Allen is only happy while he is participating in an
argument.
4. Before they left for the hike, the boy scouts were
warned about snakes.
5. Until he had watered the lawn in the morning, he
didn't see the dandelions in it.
1. You act as if I enjoy punishing you.
2. The contractor roughened the concrete
while it was still wet.
3. My sister is smarter than I.
4. The manager talked with the workers
after listening to their suggestions.
5. Before returning to work, he ate his
lunch.
1. as if I enjoy punishing you modifies the verb act
2. while it was still wet modifies the verb roughened
3. than I (am smart) modifies the predicate adjective
smarter
4. after (he had listened) to their suggestions
modifies the verb talked
5. Before (he returned) to work modifies the verb ate