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Presented by:

Divya Dhawan
 An embedded system is a
computer system with a dedicated function
within a larger mechanical or electrical
system, often with real-time computing

 Embedded systems are usually hardware-

constrained systems running dedicated
 An Embedded system hardware includes elements
a) user interface
b) Input/Output interfaces
c) display and memory, etc.

 An embedded system comprises :

a) power supply
b) processor
c) memory
d) timers
e) serial communication ports and
f) system application specific circuits.
 gives a required o/p in a particular time

 follow the time deadlines for completion of a


 Real time embedded systems are classified

into two types :
a) soft real time systems
b) hard real time systems
 do not require a host system like a computer, it works by

 It takes the input from the input ports, calculates and

gives the resulting data through connected device-Which
either controls, drives and displays the connected devices.

 Examples:

a) mp3 players,
b) digital cameras,
c) video game consoles,
d) microwave ovens and
e) temperature measurement systems, etc.
 related to a network to access the resources.

 The connected network can be LAN, WAN or

the internet.

 The connection can be any wired or wireless.

 This type of embedded system is the fastest

growing area in embedded system
 used in portable embedded devices like cell
phones, mobiles, digital cameras, mp3
players and personal digital assistants, etc.

 The basic limitation of these devices is the

other resources and limitation of memory.
 These types of embedded systems are
designed with a single 8 or 16-
bit microcontroller, that may even be
activated by a battery.

 For developing embedded software for small

scale embedded systems, the main
programming tools are an editor,
assembler, cross assembler and integrated
development environment (IDE).
 These types of embedded systems design with a
single or 16 or 32 bit microcontroller, RISCs or

 These types of embedded systems have both

hardware and software complexities.

 For developing embedded software for medium

scale embedded systems, the main programming
tools are C, C++, JAVA, Visual C++, RTOS,
debugger, source code engineering tool,
simulator and IDE.
 These types of embedded systems have
enormous hardware and software
complexities, that may need ASIPs, IPs, PLAs,
scalable or configurable processors.

 They are used for cutting-edge applications

that need hardware and software Co-design
and components which have to assemble in
the final system.
 Software running in the embedded systems is
usually optimized for the underlying
hardware and the OS used.

 The software for the embedded system has

properties just like any other software, and in
particular, it evolves.
 It is an integrated circuit that contains all the
functions of a central processing unit of a

 Microprocessor is heart of Computer system.

 Memory and I/O components have to be

connected externally.
 It is a control device which incorporates a

 Micro Controller is a heart of embedded


 It has external processor along with internal

memory and I/O components.
 ARM core processors

 Atmel AVR (8-bit), AVR32 (32-bit), and AT91SAM (32-bit)

 Texas Instruments TI MSP430 (16-bit), MSP432 (32-

bit), C2000 (32-bit)

 Toshiba TLCS-870 (8-bit/16-bit)

 Intel 8051

 Microchip Technology PIC(programmable interface

controllers), (8-bit PIC16, PIC18, 16-bit dsPIC33 / PIC24),
(32-bit PIC32), etc.
 In computer architecture, 8-bit integers, memory
addresses, or other data units are those that are
at most 8 bits (1 octet) wide.

 8-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that

are based on registers, address buses, or data
buses of that size.

 8-bit is also a term given to a generation of

microcomputers in which 8-
bit microprocessors were the norm.
 The 16-bit microcontroller performs greater
precision and performance as compared to 8-

 8 bit microcontrollers can only use 8 bits,

resulting in a final range of 0×00 – 0xFF (0-
255) for every cycle.

 In contrast, 16 bit microcontrollers with its

16 bit data width has a range of 0×0000 –
0xFFFF (0-65535) for every cycle.
 The 32-bit microcontroller uses the 32-bit
instructions to perform the arithmetic and logic

 These are used in automatically controlled devices

including :
a) implantable medical devices,
b) engine control systems,
c) office machines,
d) appliances and other types of embedded systems.

 Some examples are Intel/Atmel 251 family, PIC3x.

Microprocessor Microcontroller
Microprocessor is heart of Micro Controller is a heart of
Computer system. embedded system.
Memory and I/O components have It has external processor along
to be connected externally with internal memory and i/O
Since memory and I/O has to be Since memory and I/O are present
connected externally, the circuit internally, the circuit is small.
becomes large.
Cannot be used in compact Can be used in compact systems
systems and hence inefficient and hence it is an efficient
Most of the microprocessors do Most of the micro controllers have
not have power saving features. power saving modes like idle mode
and power saving mode.
Microprocessors are based on von Micro controllers are based on
Neumann model/architecture Harvard architecture where
 all microcontrollers contain microprocessors.

 Both differs on the basis of level of complexity.

 Microcontroller processors are making use of

less expensive and less complex circuitry.

 The main advantage is that it allows electronic

automation in situations where a full-sized
computer is not needed.
 Embedded systems are used in different
applications like:

a) Automobiles
b) telecommunications
c) smart cards
d) missiles
e) satellites
f) computer networking
g) digital consumer electronics, etc.
 Motor and cruise control system
 Body or Engine safety
 Entertainment and multimedia in car
 E-Com and Mobile access
 Robotics in assembly line
 Wireless communication
 Mobile computing and networking
 Security systems
 Telephone and banking
 Defense and aerospace
 Communication
 Displays and Monitors
 Networking Systems
 Image Processing
 Network cards and printers
 Digital Cameras
 Set top Boxes
 High Definition TVs
 DVDs
1) Embedded Systems in the Home
It includes:
a) security systems,
b) cable and satellite boxes for televisions
c) home theater systems,
d) telephone answering machines.
2) Embedded Systems in the Work Environment

 the most significant example is the Internet,

which is really a very large collection of
embedded systems that are interconnected
using various networking technologies.
3) Embedded Systems in Leisure Activities

Navigation system and portable music