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 Define a research problem

 Know the characteristics of research problem


 Identify sources of research problem
 Define objectives
 Formulate a hypothesis
 Construct Theoretical and Conceptual
Framework
 Value the significance of the study
 Know the importance of scope and limitations of
study
 Importance of definition of terms
 Researchable when:
 There is no known solution to the problem
 The solution can be answered by using statistical
methods and techniques
 There are probable solutions but they are not yet
tested
 The occurrence of the phenomena requires
scientific investigation to arrive at a precise
solution
 Specific
 The problem should be specifically stated
 Measurable
 It is easy to measure by using research instruments in
collecting data
 Achievable
 The data are achievable using correct statistical
techniques to arrive at precise results
 Realistic
 Results are not manipulated
 Time-bound
 Time Frame is required in every activity because the
shorter completion of the activity the beter
 Research was born out of man’s problems and
man’s major problem demands research
( Good and Scates, 1972)
 Specialization of the researcher is also an
impetus towards research
 Existing and past researches are rich sources of
research problems even using research
replication utilizing same instrument but
administered to different group of subjects
 Other sources include theses, dissertation,
research journals
 In research paper, thesis or dissertation either a
problem or objective is used
 Problem/objective stated in chapter 1 is answered in
chapter 4
 Research objective is defined as statement of purpose
for which the investigation is to be conducted
 Research objectives are stated in a simple language in
order that the researcher finds them easy to measure
by using research instruments in collecting data and
theses data are achieved when correct statistical
techniques are used to arrive at real results
 Defined as a wise guess that is formulated and
temporarily adopted to explain the observed
facts covered by the study
 Types of Hypothesis
 Null hypothesis
▪ Is a denial of an existence of an attribute of an attitude, a
relationship, or a difference of an effect
▪ Always stated in a negative form
 Alternative hypothesis
▪ Affirmation of the existence of an observed phenomenon
▪ Stated in a positive form
 Theoretical Framework
 Shapes the justification of the research problem/
research objectives in order to provide the legal basis
for defining its parameters or variables
 A symbolic construction which uses abstract
concepts, facts or laws, variables and their relations
that explains and predicts how an observed
phenomenon exists and operates
 An investigator is required to formulate existing
theories which link his study because theories are
useful devise for interpreting, criticizing and unifying
established scientific laws or facts that guide in
discovering new generalizations
 Conceptual Framework
 Presents specific and well defined concepts which are
called constructs
 Constructs are mental abstractions that we used to
express
the ideas, people, organisations, events and/or
objects/things that we are interested in. Constructs
are a way of bringing theory down to earth, helping to
explain the different components of theories, as well
as measure/observe their behaviour.
 Should be presented comprehensively in
order to convince the screening committee of
the importance of the study
 Presented in inductive or deductive
perspective
 Inductive
 From particular to general
 Deductive
 From general to particular
An important section of a research paper which
includes:
 The coverage of the study
 The subjects
 The research instruments
 The research issues and concerns
 The duration of the study
 Constraints that have direct bearing on the
result of the study
 Two ways to define key terms used in the
study
 Conceptual Definition
 The definition of the terms are based on concepts
or hypothetic ones which are usually taken from
the dictionary
 Operational Definition
 The definitions are based on the observable
characteristics and how it is used n the study